MYTUTOR SUBJECT ANSWERS

811 views

What is endosymbiosis and how does it relate to mitochondria?

Endosymbiosis is where two organisms live together, one inside the other: endo=in, sym=together and biosis=living.

It is believed that mitochondria originated as eubacteria that were intracellular parasites of the early anaerobic eukaryotes. Evidence for this is primarily found in the mitochondrial genome. It has been sequenced and compared to many other species of bacteria and similar organisms have been found. Other data that support this is the presence of a double membrane around mitochondria, as if the original eubacteria were endocytosed. In addition mitochondria have their own ribosomes to make proteins encoded by their genomes.

The 'pro-mitochondria' received glucose from the anaerobic eukaryotes and the anaerobic eukaryotes received a much greater amount of ATP (the main energy 'currency' of life) courtesy of the mitochondrial aerobic respiratory chain.

Though once a free living organism, it is wrong to think of the mitochondria now as 'other' or as an independent entity. Evolution has robbed it of most of its genome; the human mitochondrial genome has just 13 proteins encoded in it and as a result many of the proteins and in some cases small RNA molecules must be transported into the mitochondrion after being transcribed from the nucleus and translated by the rER.

Interestingly when the sperm and egg fuse in fertilisation, it is primarily the maternal mitochondria that are encorporated into the zygote and as a result mitochondrial diseases are inherited maternally, for example MERRF syndrome. Intuitively the tissues worst affected are those with high oxidative demands.

- See more at: https://www.mytutorweb.co.uk/tutors/secure/ta-yourexplanations.html#sthash.pg8iw476.dpuf

Aidan H. Mentoring -Medical School Preparation- tutor, Mentoring -Oxb...

2 years ago

Answered by Aidan, an A Level Biology tutor with MyTutor


Still stuck? Get one-to-one help from a personally interviewed subject specialist

170 SUBJECT SPECIALISTS

£24 /hr

Abigail C.

Degree: Biochemistry (Bachelors) - Bath University

Subjects offered:Biology

Biology

“I am a Biochemistry student at the University of Bath. I have a great passion for biology and love explaining concepts in a fun way with images and diagrams. ”

£26 /hr

Abigail M.

Degree: Plant Evolution and Ecology (Doctorate) - Oxford, Jesus College University

Subjects offered:Biology, Geography+ 5 more

Biology
Geography
Extended Project Qualification
Environmental Studies
Chemistry
-Personal Statements-
-Oxbridge Preparation-

“**AVAILABLE NOW FOR EXAM REVISION** I'm a PhD student and undergraduate tutor in Biology at the University of Oxford. ”

£30 /hr

Jessica-Lily H.

Degree: MRes Experimental Neuroscience (Masters) - Imperial College London University

Subjects offered:Biology, Psychology

Biology
Psychology

“Top tutor from a world leading university- ready to do all I can to help you get your head around that tricky subject!”

About the author

Aidan H. Mentoring -Medical School Preparation- tutor, Mentoring -Oxb...

Aidan H.

Currently unavailable: for new students

Degree: Medicine (Bachelors) - Cambridge University

Subjects offered:Biology, Science+ 5 more

Biology
Science
Maths
Human Biology
Chemistry
-Oxbridge Preparation-
-Medical School Preparation-

“Top tutor from the renowned Russell university group, ready to help you improve your grades.”

MyTutor guarantee

You may also like...

Other A Level Biology questions

Why do nerve impulses travel faster in myelinated neurons?

what is a test cross used for and how do you know what genotypes to cross?

What are the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?

Describe the process by which a pathogen is destroyed after it has become attached to the surface of a phagocyte.

View A Level Biology tutors

We use cookies to improve your site experience. By continuing to use this website, we'll assume that you're OK with this. Dismiss

mtw:mercury1:status:ok