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Why are some nuclei stable while others are unstable?

In general, stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons.

As the number of protons in the nucleus increases, the electrostatic repulsion between them grows as well, but the strong nuclear force does not grow proportionately since it is a short-range force.

Extra neutrons must be put in the nucleus to ensure stability and increase the attractive nuclear force without participating in the repulsive electric force.

However, too many neutrons will also make the nucleus unstable by favoring decays of neutrons into protons.

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