How do I translate the cum+subjunctive clause in Latin?

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The form cum+subjunctive can be translated with four different clauses: temporal, circumstantial, concessive and causal. The translation of the subjunctive depends on the verb tense of the main clause (consecutio temporum). When the main verb is a present indicative, a future indicative or a future perfect indicative (primary sequence), the subjunctive will be either present to indicate a contemporary action or perfect to indicate an earlier one. On the other side, if the main verb is an imperfect indicative, a perfect indicative or a pluperfect indicative, the subjunctive will be either imperfect for a contemporary action or pluperfect for a previous one.  The subjunctive can be translated into English with the -ing form if the verb tense is present or imperfect subjunctive; when there is a perfect or pluperfect subjunctive, the perfect gerund can be used.

Angela F.

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