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How can immunity be acquired?

Firstly we can define immunity as when an individual is no longer affected by a certain pathogen as no symptoms of infection appear when the body is invaded by the pathogen. 

Immunity comes from the presence of memory cells in the blood which can detect and react to the presence of a specific antigen to give a much quicker and more vigorous immune response than first exposure. Therefore a large number of antibodies are produced which prevent symptoms from appearing. 

A person can gain memory cells via active immunity as a small number of beta cells differentiate into memory cells after the initial exposure to a pathogen. 

Passive immunity can be gained by acquiring antibodies from other organisms, an example of this is acquiring maternal antibodies via the placenta during pregnancy. 

Immunity can be given by vaccination with exposes individuals to a weakened form of the pathogen to stimulate an immune response that results in memory cells being produced.

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