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Describe how crude oil is separated into fractions

Crude oil is separated by a process of fractional distillation. This starts by passing the crude oil through a furnace causing the liquid crude oil to change into a gas. It then passes through to the distillation column containing different levels of different temperatures getting cooler as you get higher. As a result, the different hydrocarbons condense at different temperatures allowing them to be separated and tapped off at different levels. Longer hydrocarbons with higher boiling points condense in warmer temperatures towards the bottom of the column whereas smaller more volatile hydrocarbons condense at the top of the column where the temperature is cooler.

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