Describe the process of allopatric speciation.

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Speciation is where one gene pool gives rise to multiple gene pools.

Allopatric speciation otherwise known as geographical speciation is where individuals of the same species are isolated geographically from the main population and so cannot interbreed with the main population.

This physical barrier separating the two populations prevents gene flow. 

Different climatic conditions are present in both locations where the populations are and therefore different selective pressures are present. Any population contains a mix of alleles. The allele frequency will change in both populations due to mutations and evolutionary selection.

Over time these differences build up so much that the individuals from both populations cannot interbreed to produce viable offspring - this is where they are classified as separate species and speciation has occurred.

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