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Explain how mutations can be beneficial, neutral or have harmful effects on the way a protein functions;

Beneficial - The mutation changes the sequence of amino acids in a way that the phenotype expressed will give the organism an advantageous characteristics. For example, some mutations mean that bacteria are resilient to antibiotics, this means they will survive.

Neutral - This is when the mutation happens in a non-coding region of the DNA. We call it silent mutation because although the sequence of amino acids has changed, it will still code for the same protein having no effect.

Harmful - The mutation will change the sequence of amino acids and hence the phenotype ( the physical characteristic expressed) the resulting characteristic is then harmful for example, paler skin in a hot climate would burn more easily opposed to a phenotype for darker skin.

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