|English A Literature (Standard level)||Baccalaureate||7|
|Maths Studies (Standard level)||Baccalaureate||6|
|Chinese Language B (Standard level)||Baccalaureate||6|
|Biology (Higher Level)||Baccalaureate||6|
|Psychology (Higher Level)||Baccalaureate||6|
|History (Higher level)||Baccalaureate||6|
- Lack of long-term/future planning. Makes poor decisions and is often impulsive
- Getting aggressive and frequently getting into fights
- Breaking the law/ codes of civilised behaviour. Lying, stealing or conning
- Failing to hold down a job for long, or not paying back money to people
- Lack of empathy, not feeling guilty about hurting others
· Biological: Damaged amygdala (emotion- recognising and responding to stress and fear in others) or reduction in grey matter (specifically in the PFC)
Raine et al. (2000)
Aim: To test whether APD is caused by problems with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area which helps control an individual’s social behaviour
Method: MRI scan of men with and without APD
Results: APD sufferers had 11% less prefrontal cortex than non-APD sufferers
Conclusion: Reduction in brain grey matter could be responsible for causing APD.
Generalisability & participant sample: Can the results be generalised and applied to larger settings or populations? Is the participant sample small (less than 20 participants) or large (better generalisability)? What sort of participants were used (gender/race/culture) and can the results be generalised to other populations?
Cultural and individual differences: Does the experiment take into consideration the cultural and individual differences of participants? It could be that experimenters ignore important aspects of an individual’s personality/religion/culture, which may have an impact on the results obtained.
Ethics: Deceit? (Was there any debrief?) Confidentiality (Right to anonymity- problem in some very famous case studies) Physical or psychological harm? (Especially long-term impact on life post-experiment) Participant consent? Use of animals or children? (Questionable as animals and young children can’t express their emotions or objections)
Demand characteristics: Participants might not know how to behave and
therefore behave in a way they think the researcher wants them to.
This artificial behaviour might make results unreliable.
Ecological validity: Does the task given in the experiment to participants reflect what people actually do in real life?
1) Laboratory: Artificial setting = artificial behaviours/ results
However, experimenter can control all variables, causality can be determined & it is replicable
2) Field experiment: Real-life setting= natural behaviour -> less chance of demand characteristics. However, experimenter has no control over variables (extraneous variables), therefore hard to replicate to get same results.
Elimination: Removal of the extraneous variable (e.g. noise)
Constancy: Keeping the extraneous variable constant between two or more conditions (e.g. equal levels of noise)
Counter-balancing: Controlling variables that vary over time (e.g. practice or fatigue) by altering the conditions so that the variables have an equal effect on both conditions
Randomisation: Extraneous variables are varied unpredictably (e.g. random number generator)
Single-blind: Range of techniques used to prevent the demand characterstics influencing the results. Participant is not told which condition (control or experimental) they are placed in
Double-blind: Experimenter is kept in ignorance until after the data has been collected so that his/her bias’ and expectations don’t influence the results.see more