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Lipids are a great energy reserve in both plants and animals.
This is due to the greater number of carbon-hydrogen bonds present in comparison to carbohydrates.
It also acts as an insulator against heat loss, and can provide protection for delicated organs such as the kidneys, due to it being stored around them.
Finally, lipids are insoluble in water and are important in land organisms such as insects, where the waxy cuticle is crucial in reducing water loss.see more
Mitosis consists of four basic phases.
It is a common mistake to believe that interphase is part of mitosis. In fact, interphase is just a preparation stage for mitosis, and so is NOT part of mitosis.
I use PEOPLE, MEET, AND, TALK to help me remember the order of each stage.
Prophase, is the shortening and thickening of the chromosomes from chromatin. During late prophase, the centrioles move to opposite ends of the nucleus, called the poles. The nucleolus disappears and the nuclear membrane disintegrates.
Metaphase sees the chromosomes lining up along the equator, and being attached to the centrioles via the spindle produced. This spindle is attached to the chromosomes centromeres.
Anaphase is the splitting of the chromosomes into chromatids. These are pulled to oppsit poles by the spindle.
Telophase is the reformation of the nuclear membrane, to form two cells. Cytokinesis follows, which splits the cell into two daughter cells.see more
PRIMARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE
This is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. These are bonded together by strong covalent bonds.
SECONDARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE
The secondary structure is the shape that the polypeptide chain forms as a result of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can only form between nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and flourine.
These bonds form spiral shapes called alpha helicles or beta pleated sheets.
This is the folding of the secondary structure to form a complex 3 dimensional structure. This is achieved by the following bonding:
1. Disulphide bonds
2. Ionic bonds
3. Hydrogen bondssee more