PremiumToby P. A Level Classical Civilisation tutor, GCSE Latin tutor, A Lev...

Toby P.

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Degree: Classics with Study Abroad (Bachelors) - University College London University

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About me

I am a final year Classics student at University College London. I have a real love for my subject, and this translates into every session that I teach. I aim to instil in each one of my students not simply the ability to perform to their maximum potential in an exam, although this is important, but also a real enjoyment of their subject which can last a lifetime. I have been a private tutor for three years working with a wide variety of students, both whilst studying in England and whilst completing my year abroad in Italy. I have also worked in summer schools and volunteered to improve the access of state school children to Latin. Further to this, I completed an internship in the administrative office of an exclusive private tutoring firm so I understand precisely the needs of tutors and parents.

About my sessions

The content of the sessions is entirely guided by the student, we can focus precisely on those areas which need a little bit of work, until you can translate Greek or write a compelling essay with your eyes closed. I feel that a variety of methods is important. The sessions are very interactive, I use a wide variety of worksheets and have even devised some fiendish vocabulary games for younger students, as well as always being open to questions on any aspect of the subject. When it is necessary we can focus on exam preparation but strong basics and an enjoyment of the subject will achieve so much more than endless practise papers. Please feel free to contact me with any questions or tutoring requests, or book a Meet The Tutor Session. It is very helpful for me to know your exam board and any areas with which you need particular help before we start tuition to ensure we make best use of of time together. I look forward to working with you!

Subjects offered

Classical Civilisation A Level £30 /hr
History A Level £30 /hr
Latin A Level £30 /hr
Classical Civilisation GCSE £30 /hr
Classical Greek GCSE £30 /hr
History GCSE £30 /hr
Latin GCSE £30 /hr
History 13 Plus £30 /hr
Latin 13 Plus £30 /hr


Disclosure and Barring Service

CRB/DBS Standard


CRB/DBS Enhanced


General Availability

Currently unavailable: for new students

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Ratings and reviews

5from 113 customer reviews

Deborah (Parent)

Thanks Toby - his much improved confidence & exam results have proved it!

Warwick (Student) December 16 2016

Great Lesson - Very Fun and interactive

Warwick (Student) November 18 2016

Great Lesson!

M (Parent) October 16 2016

Great again
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Questions Toby has answered

How do you use the gerund in Latin?

The use of the gerund can be one of the most confusing aspects of Latin grammar. However, its use can be distilled into a relatively simple explanation.  What is the gerund? Gramatically speaking, the gerund is a verbal noun. In practice, this means that the gerund has a verbal '-ing' meanin...

The use of the gerund can be one of the most confusing aspects of Latin grammar. However, its use can be distilled into a relatively simple explanation. 

What is the gerund?

Gramatically speaking, the gerund is a verbal noun. In practice, this means that the gerund has a verbal '-ing' meaning and is formed from verb stems, but has case endings like a noun. Its neither a true verb, nor a true noun, but has qualities of both.

How do we form the gerund?

It is formed by taking the present stem of the verb and adding -nd- (for 1st, 2nd and most 3rd conjugation verbs) or -iend (for 4th and 3rd conjugation verns with stems in I) and then adding to this the 2nd declension neuter endings. 

So, to form the gerund of amare in the accusative we take the present stem ama-, we then add -nd- to make amand-, and finally we add our 2nd declension ending -um to make the gerund amandum. Its simpler than it sounds!

When do we use the gerund? 

The use of the gerund varies depending on the case. There are a few easily defined uses that are very easy to spot. 

Accusative: The gerund in the accusative is used with ad to denote purpose. So, ad amandum = in order to love.

Genitive: The gerund in the genitive still has its normal 'of' meaning. It is most often seen with noouns such as causa or gratia. So, causa amandi for the reason of loving.

Dative: The dative use of the gerund is very rare, though it can occasionally denote purpose. Most commonly you will see a dative gerund being used with a verb that takes the dative. For example, credo amando = I have faith in loving.

Ablative: The ablative gerund has all the usual functions of the ablative combined with the 'ing' force of a verb. So, amando = by loving.

That is all there is to it. If you can recognise these few usages you have mastered the vast majority of gerunds that you will see in texts.

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2 years ago

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