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Lara (Student) October 21 2016
Reactivity increases down the group. The number of electron shells increases down the group. Therefore the outer electron is further away from the nucleus. Consequently, the attraction between the outer electron and the nucleus weakens. As a result the outer electron is lost more easily.see more
Have large surface area to increase loss of heat by radiation, which allows the animal to keep cool.
Have reduced body fat. Body fat acts as an insulating layer preventing loss of heat from the body.
Have spikes instead of leaves. This allows for reduced surface area, which in turn reduces water loss through transpiration. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost through leaves. During transpiration water molecules evapourate through holes in the underside of the leaf called stomata.
Have extensive roots. Long and wide roots enable the plant to absorb more water.
Have few stomata. This reduces water loss through transpiration.see more
Copper ions are positively charged. So they are attracted to the negative electrode. The negative electrode is called cathode.
At the cathode, each copper ion gains two electrons. They are said to be reduced because reduction is the gain of electrons.
The ionic equation for the reduction process:
Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- --> Cu (s)
Reduction of copper ion produces copper atom.see more