|Biology||A Level||£20 /hr|
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|English Literature and Language||A-Level||A*|
|LNAT||Uni Admissions Test||31|
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There are two main steps involved in protein synthesis: transcription and translation. Transcription occurs in the nucleus of a cell whereas translation takes place in the cytoplasm.
Transcription begins when the hydrogen bonds between the bases of a DNA strand (A-T, C-G) break. This causes the strand to 'unzip' resulting in two single strands. In the nucleus are free, activated RNA nucleotides which line up to the complementary bases on each strand. A reaction occurs which causes the formation of the sugar-phosphate back bone between the RNA nucleotides. Nucleotides continue to be added until the stop codon is reached and the now mRNA (messenger RNA) can leave the nucleus via a nuclear pore.
In the cytoplasm, there are free amino acids as well as tRNA. tRNA has a specific amino acid binding site as well as an anticodon on the other end (three unpaired bases). An enzyme catalyses the reaction binding the amino acid to tRNA.
Meanwhile, the mRNA attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm by a specific subunit of rRNA.This subunit covers six bases which are now 'exposed'. The first three exposed bases (always AUG) attracts the tRNA with the anticodon UAC and the next exposed mRNA bases attract the complementary tRNA molecule so two are lined up against each other. As two amino acids are now in close proximity, the enzyme peptidyl transferase from the rRNA molecule catalyses the formation of a peptide bond. This allows the ribosome to move along the mRNA strand. Subsequently, the first three bases are released from the ribosome allowing the tRNA molecule to leave but leave its amino acid behind. As more bases are exposed, more tRNA is attracted and the process starts again. The polypeptide grows with each amino acid added until a stop codon is reached and the appropriate protein has been synthesised.see more
As section B of the LNAT test, you have 40 minutes to answer one of three essay questions. It is important to note that even if you finish section A early, the remaining time will not be added to the 40 minutes. In addition to this, once your time limit is reached, your screen will immediately change allowing no time for last minute editing. Therefore, one of the most important aspects is time management and following this, planning.
To effectively use the given time, you have to plan how to use it. An example may be to spend five minutes reading through and choosing a question, another five minutes briefly planning your answerr, writing for 25 minutes and proof reading for five minutes at the end. This will not only give you a structure to adhere to, but also hopefully relax you as it allows you to have more control over the situation.
Examiners are mostly looking at how you structure essays rather than any knowledge and so I would caution against choosing a question simply because you are familiar with the subject. The questions provided should all be able to be answered without any prior knowledge. This supports the fact that universities are looking to see how you structure an argument and how you can persuade the reader to agree with you rather than the factual content.
Planning of the answer itself is necessary to prevent digression from relevant points throught the essay and wasting time. It does not have to be detailed yet it is extremely helpful to have written down what you will say in what part of the essay. This is not only a time saver but also ensures your argument flows and is coherent.
It is also important to leave time at the end to read through your essay and edit any grammatical errors or typos you may have made.see more
In a nutshell: choose the questions in which you feel you will get the most marks. The difficulty arises when the 40 mark essay question you want to answer is the same topic as one of the short answer questions you have chosen!
To prevent this panic halfway through the exam, it is important to read through the entire question paper before answering any questions. I suggest at least five minutes to go through all the sections. This is one exam where I encourage the use of strategy! Looking at the 40 mark questions first, cross off those that you feel it would be impossible for you to answer for what ever reason (e.g. lack of knowledge). After this, highlight two that you would be happy to answer. Moving on to the short answer questions, in each section (human and physical geography) highlight the ones you feel you can answer confidently whilst also keeping in mind the 40 mark questions.
If there are still clashes decide whether you think you can attain more marks by completing the 40 mark in that topic, or the short answers, and choose that one to do.see more