Degree: Modern languages with European Studies (French and German) (Bachelors) - Bath University
|French||A Level||£24 /hr|
|German||A Level||£24 /hr|
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In German, all nouns are masculine (der), feminine (die), neuter (das) or plural (die).
On the whole you need to learn the genders individually, however there some guidelines that can help you..
Nouns that are masculine by meaning
- Male people, e.g. der Artz, der Vater
- Seasons, months and days of the week, e.g. der Juni, der Freitag, der Winter
- Cardinal directions (e.g. North, South, East, West), e.g. der Norden
Nouns that are feminine by meaning
- Female people, e.g. die Frau, die Mutter
- Most trees, flowes and fruits, e.g. eine Ananas
Nouns that are neuter by meaning
- Young people and animals, e.g. das Baby, das Kind, das Ferkel (piglet)
- Hotels, cafes, restaurants and cinemas, e.g. das Ritz, das Café Rouge, das Cineworld, etc
- Names of continents, countries and towns, e.g. das Afrika, das Frankreich (France), etc
Nouns that are masculine by ending
- Nouns that end in -el; -en; -er; -ig; -ich; -ling; -and; -ant; -ar; -är; -ast; -ent; -ier; -ist; -ismus; -or; -us are normally masculine
Nouns that are feminine by ending
- Nouns that end in -age; -e; -ei; -heit; -keit; -schaft; -ie; -ek; -eke; -ik; -in; -ion; -tät, -ung, -ur are normally feminine
Nouns that are neuter by ending
- Nouns that end in -tum; -ment; -ium; -um; -ett are normally neutersee more
Unlike in the English past tense, the French have two auxiliary 'helping' verbs - avoir and être, these become before the past participle, e.g. descendu. For example, j'ai mangé, and je suis allé.
So as you can see here, the structure is 'who has done it (subject) + helping verb (auxiliary) + second verb (past participle)'
These auxiliaries are formed as follows
subject avoir être
je ai suis
tu as es
il/elle/on a est
nous avons sommes
vous avez êtes
ils/elles ont sont
Which one of these you use depends on the verb that follows/the past participle, for example a minority of 'moving' verbs mean that you must use être, e.g. je suis... These can be remembered using the anacronym DR & MRS VANDERTRAMP, they are:
Devenir - to become
Revenir - to come back
Monter - to climb
Rester - to stay
Sortir - to go out
Venir - to come
Aller - to go
Naître - to be born
Descendre - to descend
Entrer - to enter
Rentrer - to return
Tomber - to fall
Retourner - to return
Arriver - to arrive
Mourir - to die
Partir - to leave
All other verbs require the use of avoir as the helping verb/auxiliary.
The second verb/past participle, e.g. venir, manger, etc, are formed from the infinitive (as you find them in the dictionary) as follows:
Verbs ending in -er (e.g. manger) lose the -er and add an -é; e.g. mangé
Verbs ending in -ir (e.g. partir) lose the -ir and add an -i; e.g. parti
Verbs ending in -re (e.g. rendre) lose the -re and add an -u; e.g. rendu
verbs ending in -oir (e.g. voir) lose the -oir and add an -u; e.g. vu
The final step to forming the past is that only DR & MRS VANDERTRAMP verbs must take an agreement - additional letter(s) - of gender and quantity depending on who has done the verb. For example
gender singular plural
masculine - (no addition) - s
feminine - e - es
e.g. elle est allée (added e because subject is feminine); Marie et Claire sont descendues (added es because subjects are both feminine; Marc et Tom ont devenus (just the addition of an s because whilst there are two subjects, neither are feminine)see more
A natalist policy is a scheme or law that a government may adopt in order to control their population.
This is usually carried out by incentives - money or material goods that are given to families if they have below or above a certain number of children.
An example of a pro-natalist policy, which encourages higher birthrates, is Singapore. Singapore pushed a campaign in 1988 offering 12 weeks maternity leave for mothers of 4+ children, posters and slogans - 'have 3 or more!', and offered larger and larger child benefits for each child a family had.
This was due to a fall in birthrate due to men and women deciding not to have families, and persue a careers instead.
An example of an anti-natalist policy, which encourages families to have fewer children, is the famous 'one-child policy' in China, introduced in 1978-1980. This was encouraged rather forcefully by the Chinese government, forcing women to have abortions if they already had a child. However there were financial benefits for families who kept to the one-child policy.
This was implemented to control the rapidly growing Chinese population.see more