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Braj Kachru was a Professor of Linguistics who coined the term 'World English'.
'World English' refers to the fact that the English language has been used as a global means of communication in numerous dialects worldwide. It also refers to the movement towards an 'international standard' of the English language.
Kachru constructed a model of the different uses of English around the world. This model is comprised of three concentric circles, which he labelled: the inner circle, the outer circle and the expanding circle.
1) The inner circle
The inner circle is comprised of those countries who are considered the 'traditional bases' of English, such as the U.K., U.S.A, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and anglophone Canada. English in these countries are classed as a 'first' language. Kachru labels the inner circle countries as 'norm-providing' - the norms of the English language are produced there.
2) The outer circle
The outer circle is comprised of countries where English is not spoken natively but is still maintained as an important language for communication (e.g. as an official 'second' language or as the nation's official language for business and commerce) largely due to historical reasons. These countries include: India, Nigeria, the Phillippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Kenya, non-anglophone South Africa and Canada. Kachru labels these countries as 'norm-developing' - the norms prodcued by the inner circle are further developed and reproduced in the outer circle.
3) The expanding circle
The expanding circle includes much of the rest of the world's population - countries that do not hold historical or governmental importance towards English, but class it as a foreign language or lingua franca. Main examples of such countries include: most of Europe, China, Russia, Japan, Korea, Egypt and Indonesia. These countries are 'norm-dependent' - they fully depend on the norms originally produced by the native speakers of the inner circle. They generally do not develop or reproduce 'Englishes'.see more
Instrumental function - language that is used to fulfil a need, such as to obtain food, drink or comfort.
Regulatory function - language that asks, commands and requests.
Interactional function - language that is used to form, develop and regulate social relationships.
Personal function - language that expresses personal opinions.
Representational function - language that is used to relay or request information.
Heuristic function - language that is used to explore, learn and discover.
Imaginative function - the use of language to tell stories and create imaginary constructs.see more
The 9093 English Language syllabus, newly offered by the Cambridge International Examination Board from 2014, is comprised of an AS Level component and an A Level component. The AS Level can be achieved as a standalone qualification, by sitting Papers 1 and 2 in a single examination series. However, in order to achieve the A level qualification, the student must already possess the AS level qualification, or plan to sit all AS and A level papers (Paper 1 & 2 and Paper 3 & 4) in the same examination series/period.
Paper 1 - Passages
This paper is comprised of three questions, of which the candidate must answer only two. The first question is compulsory, while either question 2 or 3 is optional. Every question adopts an identical format in asking the candidate to do three things:
1) Read the passage provided.
2) Write a commentary, with particular focus on i) how the author’s language and style is portrayed in the text and ii) how the author's use of language features (e.g. vocabulary, tone, structure, figurative speech) achieved the passage’s overall purpose.
3) Write an original piece that either follows the language and style of the passage, or achieves a certain purpose.
Paper 2 - Writing
This paper is comprised of two sections, Section A and Section B. The candidate must answer only one question from each section.
Section A, titled ‘Imaginative Writing’, tests the candidate on their descriptive writing skills. Example questions from past examinations implored the candidate to write either i) a story introduction, ii) two mini descriptive pieces that depict contrasting locations or iii) a full narrative piece.
Section B, titled ‘Writing for an audience’, tests the candidate’s directive and argumentative writing skills. The questions often asks the candidate to write a piece surrounding a given topic that encompasses both advantages and disadvantages, or to write a piece that is either fully positive or fully negative.
Paper 3 - Text Analysis
This paper is comprised of two questions - the candidate must answer both.
Question 1 tests two skills: directed writing and the ability to identify key features within different styles of text (speech and written).
Question 2 requires the candidate to analytically compare the writing style of two passages.
Paper 4 - Language Topics
This paper is comprised of three questions, of which the candidate must answer only two.
The candidate will either be asked to identify key features of an extensive passage of a distinct language style, or write an essay on a language topic.
The questions will address a variety of language topics, such as:
- How different spoken language styles exist and are dependent on social, cultural and economic contexts.
- English as a global language - one definitive ‘English Language’ vs. progressively changing ‘Englishes’.
- Language acquisition in toddlers and children.see more