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The subjunctive mood is a very useful (and impressive!) tense to use when writing and speaking and it enables you to express yourself in many more ways, but it is difficult sometimes to get your head around and remember when it is essential to use it! The main concepts that the subjunctive expresses are doubt, a wish and emotions.
There are certain expressions such as bien que (although); quoique (even though) and pour que (so that); which just need to be learned so that when it comes to using them you know that they must be followed by the subjunctive.
Other set expressions are also followed by the subjunctive which do also just need to be learned, however when using them or if you come across one you can usually determine from the meaning whether it should take the subjunctive. For example " il est possible que" is followed by the subjunctive whereas "il est certain que" is followed by the imperative. This is because "possible" expressed doubt and therefore must take the subjunctive, but "certain" implies certainty and therefore is followed by the imperative.
The subjunctive is a large and complex part of French grammar to tackle but once you know when and how it must be used then it starts to become less daunting to use!see more
Haben and sein are used as the auxiliary verbs in the perfect tense before the past participle. Whether you need haben or sein depends on the meaning of the verb you are putting into the perfect tense. Most verbs will take haben, but there are lots of verbs which take sein. These are verbs of:
Movement- for example gehen, fahren and fallen. " Sie IST nach Berlin gefahren."
A change of state- for example einschlafen (to fall asleep) which describes the change of one state to another.
Exceptions such as sein and bleiben (to be and to stay.) These do not fit into a clear cut category, unfortunately they simply have to be learned so that you know they take sein in the perfect tense:
"Ich bin in der Schule gewesen" (I was in school)
"Wir sind zu Hause geblieben" (we stayed at home)see more