Currently unavailable: for new students
Degree: Biological Sciences (Bachelors) - Durham University
A bit about me
I'm studying biology at Durham University, with a passion for science! I've been volunteering with primary and secondary students for the past three years and so have a lot of experience in communicating ideas. I'm very energetic and enthusiastic, and I hope this will motivate you to do the best you can! I hope I am impart my excitement for the subject and help you be the best you can be!
I want to work together with you to make the session as you want it to be - do you want many drawings and videos? Can do! Do you want paragraphs of text? Or to work only on past papers? I'd be happy to work whichever way it can help you.
Every session should 1) be interesting, because it's the fascinating facts we remember best and 2) include exam and study tips. We could talk all day about knowledge and information, but you need a way to remember all of it for the exam - and beyond that! If you can remember the functions of a kidney nephron or the carbon cycle forty years on from now, you've learnt it right!
|Biology||A Level||£20 /hr|
|Human Biology||A Level||£20 /hr|
|Human Biology||GCSE||£18 /hr|
|Before 12pm||12pm - 5pm||After 5pm|
Please get in touch for more detailed availability
This can be variable depending on your exam board, and what your teacher wants from you, but there are some things that never change.
Structure and Plan
It's best to begin the essay with a structure in mind. It doesn't have to be complicated at all; 'Introduction', 'Reasons for', 'Reasons against', 'Conclusion' is fine. As for a plan, jot down a bullet point about each section, a sort of summary of what each paragraph should tell the reader.
You should take this time to read the question carefully, noting any dates you need to take into account. Reread sources if they're given to you, and make sure you refer to the source in your answer.
Writing down your ideas
It's easier to take a firm stance on the question than to be on the fence. Even if you don't fully agree, as long as you can write an effective argument about it, it doesn't matter.
What an essay is all about
You have an opinion of the question, and you want to convince the reader about your point of you. However, the best way to explain anything to anyone is to reason with evidence. The evidence in history is the knowledge bit, while the argument is the essay skills. Keep this in mind as you write and look over your answer.
Remember, you are not telling a story or reciting facts; you are making an argument, and taking bits and pieces of information to come up with a cohesive explanation for your opinion.
Keep it simple
Always prefer a simple, straightforward answer to an over-flourished one (this includes waffling). For example:
a) The Hitler Youth was a method the government used to instil propoganda values into children. It was also a way of controlling their behaviour.
b) The Hitler Youth took many camping trips and earned badges for their work, and many children joined it. Sometimes, when they came home from meetings, they surprised their parents with their new way of thinking. This style of thinking is what the government wanted to them to have.
Answer a) gets to the point and will save you time.
Making long and short term causation links will show your grasp of knowledge and your ability to think about levels of causation.
Finally - confidence!
There are no right or wrong answers in history - just well argued and poorly aruged ones! Have confidence in your answer, and it will show through! An easy way to attain this confidence in writing? Practice a lot (make sure to time yourself, including time to plan!) and learn your stuff!see more
The structure of proteins, especially those of enzymes, is extremely important in allowing them to carry out their duties in the cell and body. Protein folding needs to be specific, and repeated exactly the same way every time for the same protein.
The primary structure of a protein is the newly translated polypeptide strange of amino acids, which are in the order as dictated by its mRNA. Each amino acid (also referred to as a residue when it is in a polypeptide) is attached by a covalent peptide bond one either side, and each amino acid has specific properties which will allow for the protein to take the correct shape. At the moment, it is a shapeless strand.
The secondary structure of a protein can either be an alpha helix or a beta pleated sheet. A alpha helix is a tight coil (like a spring), with the peptide groups of residues forming hydrogen bonds with the ones above and below it. This bonding stabilises the structure, and is intra-molecular hydrogen bonding (the same strand forms bonds to itself). Meanwhile, beta pleated sheets are a bit looser, and have inter-molecular hydrogen bonding, where many polypeptides can be bound together.
Tertiary structure is concerned with the 3D folding of the protein. This is where amino acid specificity comes in; the R-groups of the residues (that is, the variable groups attached to the alpha-carbon of amino acids) allow for certain bonds to form. Salt bridges/ionic bonds/charge-charge interactions form between positively charged (usually basic residues such as lysine) and negatively charged (such as glutamic acid) residues. Disulphide bonds/bridges are covalent bonds between the R groups of two cysteines, which have a -S-H (thiol) group on the end. The thiol groups are oxidised to form a sulphur-sulphur bond, and this helps maintain the 3D shape of the protein. There are also hydrophobic interactions, where hydrophobic residues prefer to be in the center of the protein, and the hydrophilic ones face outwards. Finally, there are also hydrogen bonds between R-groups (not between the peptide groups but the R-groups - peptide group hydrogen bonds are used in secondary structure).
Lastly, the quarternary structure is the combination of many tertiary structure proteins and sometimes, a prosthetic group. In the case of haemoglobin, there are four polypeptides: two alpha chains, two beta chains and one prospethic group, haem, per polypeptide (so four in total on one molecule). The polypeptides are bound non-covalently, and the prosthetic group assists the protein carry out its function better. Not all proteins have a quaternary structure, especially not structural proteins.see more
The heart has four chambers; the right ventricle and atrium, and the left ventricle and atrium. Deoxygenated blood, once it has travelled the entire body, enters the heart from the vena cava into the right atrium. There, it passes through the tricuspid/atrioventricular valve into the right ventricle when the atrium contracts. The valves snap shut to prevent backflow as the ventricle fills. The ventricle then pumps the blood out through the semi-lunar/pulmonary valve, into the lungs via the pulmonary artery (the only artery where the blood is deoxygenated). In the lungs, the blood is reoxygenated by releasing CO2 and picking up O2.
The blood them travels back into the heart, entering through the pulmonary vein into the right atrium. The atrium contracts and pushes the blood past the bicuspid/atrioventricular valve, into the right ventricle. This ventricle is more muscular than the left one, because its job is to push the blood back into the circulatory system with enough pressure to continue the flow of blood through the whole system. The blood is pumped out through the aortic/semilunar valve into the aorta, and will start its journey around the body once again.see more