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Degree: Psychology (Bachelors) - Birmingham University
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When looking at the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia, some psychologists make a distinction between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Positive symptoms are those showing an excess or distortion of normal functioning (hallucinations, delusions, experiences of control and disordered thinking). Negative symptoms are those reflecting a loss of normal functioning (disturbances of affect (emotions), alogia and avolition)
+ Hallucinations: bizarre, unreal perceptions of the environment. They are usually auditory in the form of hearing voices but can be visual, smelling or taste.
+ Delusions: false beliefs that seem real to the person that remain even in the presence of disconfirming evidence.
+ Experiences of control: individual may believe that they are under the control of an external force that has invaded their mind/body e.g. aliens/government.
+ Disordered thinking: involves thought disturbances; either believing thoughts have been inserted or withdrawn by someone else or that thoughts are being broadcasted to others. It also involves problems with thought processes; not being able to maintain focus and attention in thought (indicated by loosely connected speech).
- Disturbances of affect (emotions): involve flattened effect (reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression) and inappropriate effect (displaying emotions inappropriate to the situation).
- Alogia: poor speech; i.e. breaks in trail of thought leads to incoherent speech. Alogia may also urge neologism (made up words).
- Avolition: the individual has no motivation to initiate or persist in goals, e.g. sits around for hours doing nothing.see more
- If a participant is given information concerning the nature and purpose of a study this may invalidate the purpose of the study.
- Even if researchers have sought and obtained informed consent, that does not guarantee that participants really do understand what they have let themselves in for.
- The problem with presumptive consent (see the explanation of this term below) is that what people expect that they will or will not mind can be different from actually experiencing it. (E.g. Milgram’s Study)
- Participants are asked to formally indicate their agreement to participate and this should be based on comprehensive information concerning the nature and purpose of the research and their role in it.
- An alternative is to gain presumptive consent: A method of dealing with lack of informed consent or deception, by asking a group of people who are similar to the participants whether they would agree to take part in a study. If this group of people consents to the procedures in the proposed study, it is presumed that the real participants would also have agreed.
- Researchers can also offer the right to withdraw.see more