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Diffusion is defined as the movement of a substance from a high concentration to a low concentration, meaning they move from where there are lots of them to where there are fewer. Diffusion of these molecules occurs when the particles are dissolved in water (meaning they are "in solution").
Osmosis means the movement of WATER MOLECULES from a weakly concentrated solution to a strongly concentrated solution; this means the water molecules diffuse from where there are more of them to where there are few.
So you can think of osmosis as a type of diffusion that applies to water! Try to think of the molecules wanting to get from an area where they are concentrated to the area where they are more dilute (there are fewer of them). Remember that both processes occur over a semi-permeable membrane (one that only lets molecules of a certain size through).see more
The quantitative reasoning section of the UKCAT is designed to assess general numerical skill, and so may appear quite contrasting from the sort of maths you will be used to in A-Level. You almost need to go back to basics and refresh those skills you learnt earlier in your school years!
Here are a few tips from my experience:
- the questions vary in difficulty, so do not be put off if there are more difficult questions to begin with, and easier questions towards the end. If you are spending too long on a question, move on to an easier 1.
- get used to using the onscreen calculator (this is found on a normal desktop normally under "Accessories"). You will not be able to use your own calculator in the exam.
- refresh your knowledge of percentages, fractions, averages, mental maths and graphs. These are the most common skills you are likely to need.
- access the UKCAT website for practice questions and their handbook - this will be really useful as they set the test! Practice is everything, and the more questions you do, the more used to the style you will become
- good luck!see more
This questions requires knowledge of the base pairing in DNA, plus a little bit of maths! As you know, bases on the 2 DNA strands always pair in the same way: A (adenine) with T (thymine) , C (cytosine) with G (guanine). I will use an example to explain.
Say you are told that strand 1 is 30% A, 25% C and 35% T. A always pairs with T, and so there will be the same amount of T on strand 2 as there A on strand 1 i.e. 30%.
25% C on strand 1 means there is 25% G on strand 2, as these bases always pair together. Strand 1 is 35% T and so strand 2 must be 35% A.
Finally, on strand 1, the total percentages must equal 100 and so this leaves 10% to be G. 10% G on strand 1 means 10% C on strand 2.see more