Hi! I am a recent Oxford University graduate - I studied French literature (with modules in history and English literature). I have over 3 years teaching and tutoring experience, and I strive to make my lessons fun, engaging, and more than just a way to pass an exam. I am passionate about my subjects, so I aim to transfer that passion to my students, and to make them see the benefit of studying, because, let's be honest - sometimes studying something you don't enjoy or are struggling with can feel a little pointless! As well as giving live sessions I can also look over coursework/personal statements/essays, and give constructive criticism about the way your work is constructed.
A bientôt! :)
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Often, it is more about how an author says something rather than what they say. So, the books you're reading might be about completely different things, and have different subject matters, but the way that they express their works might be similar.
For instance, their writing might use a lot of different literary techniques (eg, metaphor, simile, descriptive language) so you need to look at the way they use language and see if there are any similarities there. You also need to look at the different themes they explore. Sometimes a scene in a novel may be simply a literary device (something, perhaps a character, or an event that authors use in order to make a point, or express a point of view) in order to show something else, so look at the events and characters in the novels and see if you can think of any deeper meaning or significance behind them, and then compare them.
Sometimes, it is the difference between authors that is interesting, so if there is an aspect that is completely different, it is worth mentioning. This difference may actually highlight something important for the individual authors!see more
In French, there are 2 main past tenses - the passé composé, and the imparfait. The passé composé is used when an action has been completed, for example, when in English we would say 'I ate' or 'I have eaten.'
The imparfait is used when an action is incomplete, when in English we would say 'I was eating' or 'I used to eat'.
This is formed with the auxiliary verb (either avoir or etre) and the past participle. You just have to learn what the past participles are, but usually the infinitive minus the ending, plus an different ending to make it the past participle. For instance:
'Manger' (to eat) minus ending ER = 'mang,' which doesnt mean anything. We need to add an ending to make it a past participle, so we here add an 'é,' making 'mangé' - and voilà, the past participle. Bear in mind there are different rules for verbs with different endings.
To make use this in the context of the passé composé, use 'avoir' as an auxiliary verb. Let's take the 'je' form to make it simple. So, the je form of avoir would be 'j'ai' meaning, 'I have'. Then add in the past participle: 'j'ai mangé' - literally, 'I have eaten.' But in French there is no distinction between 'I ate' and 'I have eaten,' so you use this tense for both situations. For different people, use different forms of the verb, so 'she ate' would be 'elle a mangé' and they (male) would be 'ils ont mangé.'
Sometimes, 'etre' will be the auxiliary verb, and this is used for the following verbs
Monter - past participle: monté (went up)
Retourner - past participle: retourné (returned)
Sortir - past participle: sorti (went out)
Venir - past participle: venu (came)
Arriver - past participle: arrivé (arrived)
Naître - past participle: né (was born)
Descendre - past participle: descendu (went down)
Entrer - past participle: entré (entered)
Rester - past participle: resté (stayed)
Tomber - past participle: tombé (fell)
Rentrer - past participle: rentré (went back in)
Aller - past participle: allé (went)
Mourir - past participle: mort (died)
Partir - past participle: parti (left)
This is formed differently with ER, IR, and RE verbs. We will take an example of each to show you how they are formed (bear in mind there are some exceptions to these rules, however!)
Lets take 'manger' as an example again. For this all imperfect verb foms, you take the nous form of the present tense, in this case making 'mangeons,' and take off the -ons, leaving 'mang'. Then, add different endings depending on the person. The endings for different people are as follows:
je = ais --> used with manger: 'je mangais' tu = ais --> used with manger: 'tu mangais' il = ait --> used with manger: 'il mangait' nous = ions --> used with manger: 'nous mangions' vous = iez --> used with manger: 'vous mangiez' ils/elles = aient --> used with manger: 'ils mangaient'
Let's take 'finir' as an example. The way you construct the verb is the same as 'manger,' but the 'nous' form is different because it is an 'IR' verb: nous finissons. Take off the -ons, like we did before, which leaves 'finiss.' Then, add the same endings:
je = ais --> used with manger: 'je finissais' tu = ais --> used with manger: 'tu finissais' il = ait --> used with manger: 'il finissait' nous = ions --> used with manger: 'nous finissions' vous = iez --> used with manger: 'vous finissiez' ils/elles = aient --> used with manger: 'ils finissaient'
This is again the same process - the nous form of the verb, plus the endings. We'll take the verb 'comprendre' as an example. The 'nous' form is 'comprenons,' so without the 'ons,' the stem will just be 'compren'. Then, we can add the endings.
je = ais --> used with comprendre: 'je comprenais' tu = ais --> used with comprendre: 'tu comprenais' il = ait --> used with comprendre: 'il comprenait' nous = ions --> used with comprendre: 'nous comprenions' vous = iez --> used with comprendre: 'vous compreniez' ils/elles = aient --> used with comprendre: 'ils comprenaient'
So, there we have it, a comprehensive description of the differences between the two main past tenses and how to use them.see more