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Plate tectonics is a set of theories that describes and explains the distribution of earthquakes, volcanos, fold mountains and continental drift. It states that the earth’s core consists of semi-molten magma and that the earth’s surface (or crust) moves around on the magma.
A hotspot is a plume of lava which rises vertically through the mantle. Most are found near plate margins and may be responsible for the original rifting of the crust. However, the world’s most abundant source of lava, the Hawaiian hot spot is not on the plate margin. Hot spots can cause movement, as the outward flow of viscous rock from the centre may create a drag force on the plates and cause them to move.
Collision zones form when two continental plates collide.
Neither plate is forced under the other, instead the two plates crumple into one another and so both are forced up and form fold mountains.
This movement and pressure can often cause earthquakes but no volcanoes will occur on these boundaries.
Example: where the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate to form the Himalayas. The Himalayas are still rising today as the two plates continue to collide.
Constructive Plate Boundaries (divergent): this is where plates move apart.
A constructive plate boundary occurs where two plates move away from each other. They are pushed by molten rock, or magma, rising from the mantle crust beneath the Earth’s crust. As soon as the magma reaches the surface it solidifies, forming new crust. This is why this type of plate boundary is referred to as constructive.
An example of a constructive plate boundary is the North Atlantic Ridge.
Conservative Plate Boundaries
-One type of plate boundary is the conservative plate boundary. This is where plates slide horizontally past one another.
Not all of the Earth’s plates are moving apart or crashing into one another. Some plates slide horizontally against each other at conservative plate boundaries. No crust is created or destroyed at these boundaries.
This also means there are no volcanoes at these boundaries. EQs do occur, however, as the plates tend to stick then slip violently rather than sliding smoothly against each other. This occurs at the San Andreas Fault in California.
Destructive plate boundaries
At these margins 2 plates move or CONVERGE together and the destruction of some of the Earth's crust results.
An oceanic plate (denser) is pushed towards a continental plate (less dense) by convection currents deep within the Earth's interior. The oceanic plate is subducted (pushed under) the continental plate at what is called a subduction zone, creating a deep ocean trench. It is the Oceanic crust which sinks down into the mantle because it is denser (heavier).
There are several examples of Destructive plate margins, including along the West coast of the Americas and Japan, where the Philippines sea plate is pushed under the Eurasian plate.see more
The UK is highly successful in attracting FDI, with the UK being the highest receiver of FDI in Europe and the second highest in the world (after the USA).
The single largest donor of FDI is the USA, 27% of all invested in the UK. This investment has raised productivity, created thousand of jobs, and encouraged innovation, new technology and new skills.
However, FDI competes directly with British firms
FDI is concentrated in London and the South East, due to the attraction of transport infrastructure and skilled labour. Of the 1773 investment projects in the UK in 2013, 656 were in London, 840 in the rest of England, but just over 200 in the rest of the UK (Wales, Scotland and N.Ireland)
Trade barriers are another method which can be used.
British companies can sometimes have trouble operating outside the UK. This can be because of discriminatory rules and practices of other countries or misinterpretation of rules by administrative authorities.
It can also be because another country imposes an unfair increase in duty or import levy on UK business. Measures like this are known as trade barriers.
There are several different types of trade barrier. They include tariffs and non-tariff barriers.
A tariff is the amount of import duty charged on a particular type of goods. Non-tariff trade barriers are measures intended to favour local industry. They can include:
- trade regulations
- labelling rules
- unfair government subsidies
Globalisation has resulted in the freer movement of people
International migration doubled between 1975 and 2005
Today 3% of the worlds population live outside their country of birth. The UK has experienced unparalleled international immigration since 1997, before this net migrational change was virtually zero
Since this, net migration has been running at around 200,000 a year
On 18 June 2007, the Home Office released 'Managing Global Migration', a report outlining the United Kingdom's plans to manage migration to the country in the future. The plan includes strengthening borders, enforcing immigration laws, and fast tracking asylum decisions
The government also plans to boost the UK economy by attracting highly skilled migrants and making the country easy to visit legallysee more
Affirmitive action is a policy or program of increasing the representation of certain designated groups seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures such as in education and housing.
It helps to right the previous wrongs that have hindered the progress of African Americans e.g. Martin Luther King Jnr said “ A society that has done something special against the negro, must do something special for the negro”
Affirmitve action can help to increase diversity within society. Esp in education as it can create a diverse learning environment and increase social acceptance/tolerance. All cultural heritages are accepted. e.g. more social cohesion, less crime.
Delivers the promise of equal opportunity e.g. from the 1960s-95 the % of black people who graduated from university went from 5% to 15%, as well as this it draws people into occupations into jobs they would have not thought of e.g. men into nursing etc
According to liberals it has not been successful so is still required. 11% of African American still live under the 50% poverty line despite measures to increase education and job availability to. Japanese Americans were given compensation after ww2 for the mistreatment they suffered and received a gvt apology showing that reparations are needed.
Reverse discrimination, white people who work hard and who are qualified may be overlooked e.g. a white person who lives in poverty who tries hard may lose out to a middle class African American who is less qualified. It benefits the most fortunate amongst the preferred group e.g. wealthy black people, and is detrimental to the less fortunate amongst the non -preferred group e.g. poor white people.
It perpetuates a society based on colour and race therefore encourages prejudice. It sends a message that african americans success due to preferential treatment -> can cause animosity between races, crime could increase etcsee more