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Janelle (Parent) February 19 2017
Explaining the formation of a meander is a common question at both GCSE and A-Level. The answer given below is for an A-Level response.
Answering this question may also involve drawing a small annotated sketch of a meander as well as a substantial paragraph of explanation.
The formation of a meander can often be explained in a series of key steps (remember that geographical terms are very important here):
1. Due to banks of sediment at the bottom of the river (which are deposited at times of low flow, that is, a low velocity and low discharge, meaning deposition increases), the river weaves around these alternating shallow and deeper sections (riffles and pools) on what was an initially straight channel.
2. This movement targets one bank of the section after the riffle, subsequently leading to erosion (carried out by hydraulic action and abrasion) – this becomes the outside bend of the meander.
3. This leads to the formation of a river cliff on the outside bend. The material eroded further upstream is deposited on the opposite bank (inside bend) on the slip off slope. This is due to a corkscrew movement in the river (helicoidal flow) which results in water levels on the outside of a meander bend to be elevated, giving a faster velocity (the Thalweg line is located here). The deposition on the inside bend gives an asymmetrical cross section of the channel. The Thalweg line is the line of maximum water velocity down the path of the river.
4. Erosion and deposition continues which leads to the meanders becoming more curved. This eventually results in ‘meander migration’ – i.e. these processes shift downstream and are not static in one particular location.see more
This very topical GCSE question in the ‘Population Change’ topic asks you to explain why people move between countries that are part of the European Union (EU).
As the question asks you to use ‘examples’ you need to refer to specific places, for example, there was lots of migration occurring across the EU after 2004 when many Eastern European countries such as Poland joined the European Union.
You then need to explain why people were migrating e.g. some Polish citizens moved to countries such as the UK in search of better jobs (reference to push/pull factors), better standard of living and better education. Higher wages in the UK meant that money (remittances) was sent back home (also because Polish currency was weak)– this can encourage the development of the home country for their relatives (i.e. better quality of life etc.).
You could refer to recent issues such as the collapse of the Greek economy which encouraged Greek citizens to move to other EU countries in search of work.see more
This is a common question at A-Level, especially in a Geographical Skills paper. You may be required to give examples of each type of data.
Qualitative data is usually descriptive data such as the collection of people’s opinions or perspectives on an issue, and is therefore generally more subjective. The most common form of qualitative data are open-ended questionnaire responses or conversation analysis, for example.
Quantitative data is generally numerical (or can be placed into categories) and is therefore more objective in nature. Examples include river velocity data or pedestrian counts. This data is easy to put into a table and graphs and can then be made ready to be analysed further.see more