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Andrea (Parent) November 29 2016
B-Lymphocytes remain in the bone marrow until they mature and then spread throughout the body, concentrating in the lymph nodes and the spleen.
They express a specific intrinsic protein called a B-cell receptor, each B-lymphocyte has a different shaped receptor. This receptor can bind antigens floating in the blood plasma.
The binding of an antigen to a b-cell receptor is insufficient to stimulate a response. The binding of a T-helper cell is also required to activate the B-cell.
Binding of an antigen stimulates endocytosis and antigen presentation via an MHC II (Major Histocompatibility Complex 2) molecule.
Activated B-Cells then undergo clonal expansion (the production of identical B-cells by mitosis)
Some B-Cells can then differentiate into plasma cells which produce antibodies very quickly. The antibodies are secreted into the blood and lymph systems.
They do not live long and they are specific to the antigen that was originally recognised.
Other B-Cells differentiate into memory cells. They remain circulating in the body for long periods of time.
If the same antigen is reintroduced, memory cells divide rapidly and develop into plasma cells and more memory cells.see more
There’s no simple way to write a history essay. Even those who have been in the field for years are not always perfect. However, there are some tips that always apply.
1. Structure- Always make sure your essay has some form of structure. Consists of:
Introduction- summating your argument, what you are about to argue
Paragraphs- the main body of your essay, here is where you argue and consolidate with own knowledge.
Conclusion- The summation of your whole argument.
2. Answer the Question
This is something that is crucial to do. When writing consider what is the question asking. Make sure that every paragraph links with the original question. That way you write clear and concisely.
3. Change and Continuity
This is something all historians love, how have things changed over time, and if not why haven’t they?
This is something that can be quite challenging to do, but comes naturally after a while. The basic principle is to consider what has changed and what caused this change. Once you have done this it brings up questions of the importance of the change to the period you are studying allowing further examination of the topic usually in relation to the question you are answering.
4. Don’t Panic
Essays are scary things just take your time and think it through and you’ll be fine.see more