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I believe the best way to approach this question is to look for frameworks shared by both texts, and directly compare the ways they are used, as they are often provided in a different context or offer an alternative attitude. The formemtioned attitude is perhaps the key to this question, as discovering each framework's intentions leads to linking this to the text as a whole and comparing their ultimately differing views.see more
There are three things to consider every single time relative reactivity is unknown; atomic radius, shielding, and number of electrons. The reactivity is the halogens ability to gain an electron, so number of electrons already in the atom plays a vital role. Chlorine has more electrons so repels a reacting electron with greater force than fluorine, making it less likely to react.
Fluorine also has fewer electron shells than chlorine, so there are fewer electrons between the positive nucleus and the reacting electron to essentiallly block, or weaken, the electromagnetic attraction. This is shielding.
Lastly, fluorine is much smaller molecule than chlorine, and the shorter distance, or radius, between the nucleus and the electron again makes it more likely to attract the electron and react to gain a noble gas configuration.see more
The main bonding in DNA which renders the double helix structure so stable is that of hydrogen bonds. Between the complementary base pairs, hydrogen bonds connect the two strands of the helix. There are 3 H bonds between Guanine and Cytosine and 2 between Adenine and Thymine. As well as this there are hydrogen bonds between the bases and surrounding water molecules, and this combined with the even stronger phosphodiester bonds in the sugar phosphate backbone make DNA very stable.see more