__About me:__

I am currently studying for a PGCE in Secondary Physics at Durham University. This means **I am training to be a secondary school science teacher**, specialising in Physics. I achieved top grades at A Level and then went on to attain a First Class Master’s degree in Chemistry and Physics at Durham University, so **I have the subject knowledge required for excellent tutoring.**

__My experience:__

**I have taught GCSE Science and A Level Physics in two outstanding secondary schools** as part of my training so I

__I’ll go the extra mile:__

My next teaching placement doesn’t start until January 2015 so until then **I can** **devote ALL my time to tutoring**. Let me know in advance what you’re struggling with and which exam board you’re doing, and I’ll put in the hours to familiarise myself with the exam board syllabus and prepare an **outstanding session**.

__Final word:__

I *want* to qualify and work as a science teacher in the years to come, so **helping students realise their passion for science and achieve their grades clearly means a lot to me**.

I look forward to meeting and working with you.

__About me:__

I am currently studying for a PGCE in Secondary Physics at Durham University. This means **I am training to be a secondary school science teacher**, specialising in Physics. I achieved top grades at A Level and then went on to attain a First Class Master’s degree in Chemistry and Physics at Durham University, so **I have the subject knowledge required for excellent tutoring.**

__My experience:__

**I have taught GCSE Science and A Level Physics in two outstanding secondary schools** as part of my training so I

__I’ll go the extra mile:__

My next teaching placement doesn’t start until January 2015 so until then **I can** **devote ALL my time to tutoring**. Let me know in advance what you’re struggling with and which exam board you’re doing, and I’ll put in the hours to familiarise myself with the exam board syllabus and prepare an **outstanding session**.

__Final word:__

I *want* to qualify and work as a science teacher in the years to come, so **helping students realise their passion for science and achieve their grades clearly means a lot to me**.

I look forward to meeting and working with you.

Enhanced DBS Check

21/06/20134.9from 13 customer reviews

Judith (Parent)

June 12 2015

Excellent

STEFAN (Student)

December 2 2014

useful and straight to the point.

Mary (Student)

February 6 2015

Excellent help again! Made things really understandable and answered some questions I didn't know I had :-)

Mary (Student)

January 29 2015

Really helpful explanations and answer all my questions in a very understandable way :-)

Atoms in a metal are arranged in a **lattice** formation. *What is a lattice?* Imagine a grid (squares on a sheet of graph paper for example) where there is a metal atom in each square of the grid. This is called a metal lattice.

Metal atoms like to **lose** electrons. *Why?* Because they want to have a full outer shell of electrons. *How many electrons do they lose?* It depends on the metal. Different metals have different numbers of electrons in their outer shells. For example, sodium has 1 electron in its outer shell so it only loses 1 electron; aluminium has 3 electrons in its outer shell so it loses 3 electrons.

The outer shell electrons of each atom in a metal lattice can therefore move around the lattice. We call these electrons **delocalised** or **free electrons**. (It is these free electrons which make metals good conductors of both heat and electricity.) Since the outer shell electrons have left their atoms, we are left with a **lattice of positively charged metal ions** and a **“sea” of negatively charged free electrons**. Opposite charges attract each other, so the positive metal ions are attracted to the negative free electrons. This **electrostatic** interaction is metallic bonding.

The sea of free electrons is like a glue that holds all the metal ions together. This ‘glue’ is very strong which is why metals have very high melting points and boiling points.

Atoms in a metal are arranged in a **lattice** formation. *What is a lattice?* Imagine a grid (squares on a sheet of graph paper for example) where there is a metal atom in each square of the grid. This is called a metal lattice.

Metal atoms like to **lose** electrons. *Why?* Because they want to have a full outer shell of electrons. *How many electrons do they lose?* It depends on the metal. Different metals have different numbers of electrons in their outer shells. For example, sodium has 1 electron in its outer shell so it only loses 1 electron; aluminium has 3 electrons in its outer shell so it loses 3 electrons.

The outer shell electrons of each atom in a metal lattice can therefore move around the lattice. We call these electrons **delocalised** or **free electrons**. (It is these free electrons which make metals good conductors of both heat and electricity.) Since the outer shell electrons have left their atoms, we are left with a **lattice of positively charged metal ions** and a **“sea” of negatively charged free electrons**. Opposite charges attract each other, so the positive metal ions are attracted to the negative free electrons. This **electrostatic** interaction is metallic bonding.

The sea of free electrons is like a glue that holds all the metal ions together. This ‘glue’ is very strong which is why metals have very high melting points and boiling points.

This is only the case in a vacuum because there are no air particles, so there is no air resistance; gravity is the **only** force acting. You can see it for yourselves with this **easy **experiment:

Take one piece of A4 paper and scrunch it up into a ball. Take two pieces of identical A4 paper and scrunch them up together into another ball. Your two paper balls should be of similar size but one twice as heavy as the other. Now drop them from the same height at the same time – you will see that they hit the ground at the same time! There is still air resistance but its effects are the same for both balls as they are the same size and shape. So it’s like there’s no air resistance at all!

Here are two different ways of explaining this phenomenon.

__Explanation using equations:__

Any object of mass *m* in a gravitational field (in this case Earth’s) has a **gravitational force**, *F*, acting on it:

*F* = (*GmM*) / *R*^{2}

where *G* is the gravitational constant (this number does not change, it is the same throughout the whole universe), *M* is the mass of the Earth, and *R * is the distance between the object and the centre of the Earth. It is this force which causes objects to fall to the ground in the first place.

Newton’s Second Law states that a **force** acting on an object will cause a change in speed, or **acceleration**, *a*, of the object:

*F* = *ma (Very important equation)*

Therefore, the gravitational force will cause the object to accelerate towards the Earth. To find a formula for this acceleration, we combine the two equations for *F* above:

*ma* = (*GmM*) / *R*^{2}

Then we can divide through by *m* to get:

*a* = (*GM*) / *R*^{2}

As we can see, *m* does **not** appear in this formula, meaning that the acceleration of an object in free-fall **does not depend on its mass**.

__“Wordy” explanation:__

Gravity exerts a greater force on a heavy object than on a light object which is what you would expect. *So why don’t heavy objects fall faster?* The effect of this greater force on the acceleration of the object is cancelled out by the greater mass of the object. To help us understand this, let’s consider the following analogy. Imagine that you have to pull two boxes across a room; one box is twice as heavy as the other. In order to pull them at the same speed you need to pull the heavier box with twice as much force. Gravity pulling objects to the ground is like you pulling boxes across a room. Gravity needs to exert more force on heavier objects to make them fall as quickly as lighter objects.

This is only the case in a vacuum because there are no air particles, so there is no air resistance; gravity is the **only** force acting. You can see it for yourselves with this **easy **experiment:

Take one piece of A4 paper and scrunch it up into a ball. Take two pieces of identical A4 paper and scrunch them up together into another ball. Your two paper balls should be of similar size but one twice as heavy as the other. Now drop them from the same height at the same time – you will see that they hit the ground at the same time! There is still air resistance but its effects are the same for both balls as they are the same size and shape. So it’s like there’s no air resistance at all!

Here are two different ways of explaining this phenomenon.

__Explanation using equations:__

Any object of mass *m* in a gravitational field (in this case Earth’s) has a **gravitational force**, *F*, acting on it:

*F* = (*GmM*) / *R*^{2}

where *G* is the gravitational constant (this number does not change, it is the same throughout the whole universe), *M* is the mass of the Earth, and *R * is the distance between the object and the centre of the Earth. It is this force which causes objects to fall to the ground in the first place.

Newton’s Second Law states that a **force** acting on an object will cause a change in speed, or **acceleration**, *a*, of the object:

*F* = *ma (Very important equation)*

Therefore, the gravitational force will cause the object to accelerate towards the Earth. To find a formula for this acceleration, we combine the two equations for *F* above:

*ma* = (*GmM*) / *R*^{2}

Then we can divide through by *m* to get:

*a* = (*GM*) / *R*^{2}

As we can see, *m* does **not** appear in this formula, meaning that the acceleration of an object in free-fall **does not depend on its mass**.

__“Wordy” explanation:__

Gravity exerts a greater force on a heavy object than on a light object which is what you would expect. *So why don’t heavy objects fall faster?* The effect of this greater force on the acceleration of the object is cancelled out by the greater mass of the object. To help us understand this, let’s consider the following analogy. Imagine that you have to pull two boxes across a room; one box is twice as heavy as the other. In order to pull them at the same speed you need to pull the heavier box with twice as much force. Gravity pulling objects to the ground is like you pulling boxes across a room. Gravity needs to exert more force on heavier objects to make them fall as quickly as lighter objects.