10581 questions

You are making a list of the different ways you could travel in Germany. Make a list in German of four more types of transport. Example: Straßenbahn

Das Fahrrad, der Zug, das Schiff, die U-Bahn
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Petra C. IB German tutor, 13 Plus German tutor, GCSE German tutor

22 hours ago

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To what extent did the Second World War bring about social change in Britain?

The Second World War arguably acted as catalyst for social change in Britain as it exposed the areas of society that were need of support from the government. The process of evacuation and also intergration of classes on the Western Front enabled all levels of society to witness the extreme poverty that was present throughout Britain. This led to the government being pressured to implement some kind of welfare reforms in order to satisfy the country. The reforms implemented by the Labour government after the war were guided by the Beveridge Report of 1942 which stated the need for a nationalised health service and child benefits for all members of society regardless of income. Beveridge's suggestions were deemed so radical that the government refused to put their name to the report but the country's support for these reforms was overwhelming. Undoubtably it was the shift in attitudes of the poor that were caused by the war that allowed the reforms to be not only accepted but welcomed by such a large proportion of society, leading to dramtic social change.  (This is an example of one paragraph in an answer that would require at least 2 or 3 more paragraphs addressing other factors depending on how many marks the question is worth)
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How does the Krebs Cycle work?

The Krebs Cycle is important for producing reduced coenzymes - like NADH and FADH - which can be used later to produce ATP. It starts off with a 4-carbon compound called oxoaloacetate and a 2-carbon molecule called Acetyl Coenzyme A. Acetyl Coenzyme A donates its 2 carbons to oxoaloacetate to form a 6-carbon compound called Citrate or Citric Acid. The citric Acid is decarboxylated into a 5-carbon compound, releasing a CO2. Dehydrogenation occurs simultaneously, releasing a hydrogen molecule that is used to make reduced NAD. The 5-carbon compound is then decarboxylated into the original 4-carbon compound oxoaloacetate which can be used again in the cycle. Again, dehydrogenation occurs alongside this reaction to make two reduced NADs and one reduced FAD which can both be used later on in respiration to produce ATP. This cycle occurs twice for every glucose molecule metabolised.
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2 days ago

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What's the difference between T Cells and B Cells?

Both T Cells and B Cells are types of lymphocytes found in the blood. T Cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity. This means the cells themselves act to remove pathogens from the body by killing them directly (called T Killer Cells), or by activating B lymphocytes (called T helper cells). T cells are activated when receptors on their surface bind to pathogen antigens with a complementary shape. There are also regulatory T Cells that prevent immune cells from attacking the body after the pathogen has been removed. B lymphocytes are involved in humoral immunity. This means that they secrete chemicals called antibodies into the blood, and these help to remove or kill the invading pathogens. Each B Cell is covered in these antibodies, and are activated when the antibody binds to an antigen with a complementary shape. When this happens, an antigen-antibody complex forms and triggers the B cell to divide several times, into cells called plasma cells. These are responsible for secreting large quantities into the blood.
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2 days ago

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How can base interest rate be used to affect inflation?

Monetary policy in the UK has often focused on controlling the rate of inflation, changing interest rates is a short-term instrument for achieving this. When interest rates are lowered, ceteris paribus, there would likley be an increase in inflationary pressures and when interest rates are raised there would likley be a decrease in inflationary pressures.  This is because interest rates have important implications for components of aggregate demand and the level of aggregate demand defines demand pull inflation. For example, a decrease in interest rates would increase consumption. Not only would there be a decreased incentive to save (and therefore increased incentive to spend) but borrowing would also become cheaper. Increased consumption would shift aggregate demand outwards, causing a price level increase. Exchange rates and investment would also likely be affected in ways that would further increase aggregate demand and inflationary pressures.
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Did the Nazis build their state on coercion or support?

COERCION - use of Gestapo to instill fear, the DAF replacing trade unions, terror and punishment SUPPORT - most support, number of people in organisations, mass rallies
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What are the differences between normal cells and cancer cells?

Cancer cells are not foreign cells, but abnormally functioning body cells, and may therefore escape immune detection, which is one of the reasons why they are so difficult to treat.  Here are some differences between normal cells and cancer cells: 1.) Shape 
Normal cells: small nuclei, large cytoplasmic volume, cell size and shape is usually similar among cells of the same type
Cancer cells: large nuclei, small cytoplasmic volume, cell size and shape varies (even among cells of the same type) 2.) Arrangement
Normal cells: arranged into discrete tissues
Cancer cells: disorganised arrangement 3.) Functions
Normal cells: differentiated cell structures (specialisation - carry out very specific functions according to cell type)
Cancer cells: loss of specialised features, elevation of certain markers (that may lead to increased division and proliferation - and therefore to the uncontrollable growth of the tumour - an example is BRCA in breast cancer) 4.) Growth and movement in space
Normal cells: low levels of dividing cells, stay within clear boundaries of cell tissues
Cancer cells: large number of dividing cells, tumour boundaries are absent or poorly defined
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3 days ago

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Why is healthcare not a public good in economics?

A public good is a good that meets 2 criteria: 1, non-excludable and 2, non-rivalrous. A strong emphasis here on the fact that a 'public' or 'private' good in economics has nothing to do with the provider of the good, rather, the nature of the good.Now let's define the 2 natures/criteria: A non-excludable good is a good that cannot exclude certain people from using it. Most products/goods are excludable by price, in the sense that people who cannot afford the product/good are excluded from it. In this case, when healthcare is provided by the government for free, everyone has rights to it, which means that everyone has the right to use and utilize the healthcare. A non-rivalrous good is a good in which the consumption of it doesn't prevent others from consuming it. In simpler terms, it is a good that doesn't get used up or get out of stock. An easy example is the radio = when people listen to the radio, they do not affect other people's ability to listen to the same radio. This is the criterion that healthcare does not meet, as when a patient uses up a hospital bed, they effectively prevent another person from using THAT hospital bed. Thereby we conclude that healthcare is a non-excludable BUT rivalrous good, also known as a mixed good or quasi-public good.
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