4679 questions

Should I use quotations in my essay?

It is important to use quotations in your essay as evidence for the point you are making. Use 'PEE' to remember the important steps you must follow when writing an essay.

Point - make your point that make sure it links back to your question.

Evidence - select a quotation from the text that you think you could use to evidence the point you are making.

Explanation- once you have selected your quote it is important to give your opinion. What are your views? What is the author trying to say? What is the context? 

Example: 'how is social class a key theme in Jane Eyre?' 

Point: Social class plays a key role in the relationship between Jane and Mr. Rochester. Class is the main cause of friction between the two characters: 

Evidence: 'you think because I am poor, obscure, plain and little, I am soulless and heartless?'

Explanation: This quotation shows Mr. Rochester perceives Jane as emotionally incapable because she is socially inferior. It is clear Mr. Rochester thinks class is civilizing is perhaps more emotionally developed because of his social authority. Class was a divisive feature of Victorian society. Jane and Mr. Rochester's relationship is a microcosm of that division in society. Class is a predominant feature of the novel that continuously threatens their relationship. 

It is really important to use this structure in order to answer the question. It will ensure your essay is guided by evidence and not your own opinion. 

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Lucy  P. A Level History tutor, 13 Plus  History tutor, GCSE History ...

17 hours ago

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How do you know if the 'vous' person is for a group of people or to show a mark of respect to the person you're talking to?

The main different is mostly about the context in which the conversation takes place. If a question is asked using the 'vous' person and different voices answer the question, then you know that you are talking to a group of people, while if it is always the same person answering your question, it is one single person to whom you are showing respect (as that person isn't in your close relations).

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Colombe D. A Level French tutor, GCSE Spanish tutor

19 hours ago

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How do I get a good UKCAT score?

I took the test in 2015 and found that the most important thing is to practise. For the situtional judgement it may be usefu to familiarise yourself with some common ethical topics but after doing a lot fo practise questions seem to repeat themselves! As for the other sections the most important thing - like I have already mentioned - is practise! Tackle as many questions as you can before the exam and try to do them under timed conditions. It is useful to come up with tactics for combatting the time restraints to ensure you gain the best score possible. 

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Hannah G. A Level Biology tutor, IB Biology tutor, GCSE Biology tutor...

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What/how much work experience should I do?

Unfortunately there is no set amount/type of work experience that you can do that will garuntee that you will obtain a place at medical school. From what I understand the medical school are more interested in what you have learned from the experiences you have been through, how you reflect on them and how these have influenced you. I would recomend covering a sort of hospital work experience and a volunteering work experience as they cover a wide variety of skills.

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Hannah G. A Level Biology tutor, IB Biology tutor, GCSE Biology tutor...

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Can you solve these simultaneous equations and find the values of x and y? Equation 1: 2x + y = 14 Equation 2: 4x - y = 10.

Equation 1: 2x + y = 14 Equation 2:   4x - y = 10

Add the two equations together to get 6x = 24. Therefore x = 4.

Then substitute the value x = 4 into equation 1 and solve. 

2(4) + y = 14

8 + y = 14

y = 6

Therefore x = 4 and y = 6.

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Hannah G. A Level Biology tutor, IB Biology tutor, GCSE Biology tutor...

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Find the integral of sin^2(X)

As soon as you see a question asking you to integrate the square of sin, cos or tan, your first approach should be to use trigonometric identities and double angle formulas. 

For sin2(X), we will use the cos double angle formula:

cos(2X) = 1 - 2sin2(X)

The above formula can be rearranged to make sin2(X) the subject:

sin2(X) = 1/2(1 - cos(2X))

You can now rewrite the integration: 

∫sin2(X)dX = ∫1/2(1 - cos(2X))dX

Because 1/2 is a constant, we can remove it from the integration to make the calculation simpler. We are now integrating:

1/2 x ∫(1 - cos(2X)) dX = 1/2 x (X - 1/2sin(2X)) + C

It is very important that as this is not a definite integral, we must add the constant C at the end of the integration.

Simplifying the above equation gives us a final answer:

∫sin2(X) dX = 1/2X - 1/4sin(2X) + C

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What is the difference between the two French verbs 'to know'; savoir and connaître?

Asa whole, the difference between savoir and connaître can be summed up by generalising. Connaître is usually used for more specific things, whereas savoir would be used for wider, more inherent uses and more general situations. But there are nuances. To know people, places, specific values or a specific existence would use connaître. Whereas To know how to do something,  to know of a wider event or to know a certain piece of informaton or fact, would take savoir. For example, notice the nuance between 'il sait chanter', et 'il connaît ce chanson'. Savoir meaning that he knows how to sing (n.b. without the inclusion of 'comment') whilst connaître indicates that he knows a particluar, specific song.

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Discuss the impact of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 on those required to attend jury service (11)

Introduction (What was the law before the Criminal Justice Act 2003)

Prior to the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (CJA 2003) the Juries Act 1974 set out the eligibility and disqualification criteria for jurors. It also gave people in certain professions the right to opt out of jury duty. The Criminal Justice Act 2003, implemented many of the recommendations in the Auld,Report- most notably it removed some groups of people from disqualification and abolished the right to opt out of jury duty from certain professions.

Body of the essay (What changes did the Criminal Justice Act 2003 make?)

The CJA 2003 states that those aged 18-70 registered on the electoral register, resident in the UK for at least 5 years since the age of 13 would be eligible for jury duty in the UK. The act also outlines the disqualifications which include persons on bail, those with serious criminal convictions as well as the mentally disordered persons.

Prior to the CJA 2003, five categories of person were ineligible for jury service, the judiciary, those involved in the administration of justice such as police officers and solicitors, the clergy, police with mental ill health and people on bail.

Key point: As a result of the CJA 2003, everyone summoned for jury duty except full time members of the armed forces, those over 65, those that have served jury duty in the last two years, MPs and certain members of the medical profession and those with religious beliefs that may be incompatible will be expected to serve as a juror and excusals will only be given in extreme circumstances. The result of this has had dramatic consequence for some medical professionals as many will not be excused from jury duty. If a key medical professional is summoned for jury duty many patients’ appointments would have to be cancelled or that person would have to defer and take time out of their holidays.

Following the CJA 2003, only the mentally ill are ineligible and so arguable jurors have become more representative of society. However there have been criticisms of the definition of mentally disordered persons as it currently does not distinguish between those receiving treatment for mild depression from their GP and those sectioned under the Mental Health Act 1983 which could limit the representation of jurors.

Key Point: Another result of the CJA 2003 is that people, who work in the criminal justice system, which make it more difficult to remain impartial as a juror, are now eligible to be a juror. In some cases police officers and Crown Prosecution Service solicitors have sat as jurors and this may infringe a defendant’s right to a fair trial under Article 6 of the ECHR. There is also the risk that other jurors may be swayed by the opinion of someone working within the criminal justice system.  For example in R v Abdroikof and others it was held that a police officer should not be excluded from the jury simply because of his occupation it would depend on the risk of bias. However in R v Sussex Justices ex parte McCarthy one judge said ‘not only must justice be done; it must be seen to be done.’ It was held in this case that the presence of a juror who was also a Crown Prosecutor was not neutral as he was a full-time salaried, long serving employee of Prosecution.

Conclusion (Your views do not use ‘I think’)

The CJA 2003 has had some positive impact. The fact that more people are eligible and excusals are harder to get means that the juries are a lot more representative of society than they were prior to 2003. Juries are supposed to reflect how society would judge a defendant; therefore if more people can be selected as a juror, it should provide a fairer verdict supporting Article 6 of the ECHR.

The reforms on eligibility brought by the CJA 2003 have increased the representation of society, potentially at the cost of allowing potential bias into juries. There has also been criticism that the right for certain individuals excused should not have been removed as their service to the community outweighed the value of jury duty.

Note: Use law and cases to add weight to your essay see underlined sections above.

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Sanchia P. A Level Law tutor, GCSE Law tutor, Mentoring -Personal Sta...

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