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What is Epistemology?

Epistemology is the theory of knowledge, with specific regards to its method, validity and scope. It helps us to define the distinctions between justified belief and opinions, whilst also gaining an understanding of knowledge's value and ethical implications.
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Theodore S. GCSE English tutor, GCSE History tutor, GCSE Religious St...

15 hours ago

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How can I critically engage with an argument that I support/like?

It is important to remember that when writing essays in exams, the examiner is interested in the way in which you engage with the question and not merely the content of the course. What is so exciting about essay subjects like Philosophy, Religion, English and History is that you are given a window of opportunity in your exam to present a convincing argument to the reader. Whilst it can often seem as if the ‘Point, Evidence, Explain’ structure is the most important thing, you should remember that this is a guideline to help your essay structure and not to limit it. You need to use the knowledge you’ve learnt and put it to the test. It is up to you to carefully pick the relevant knowledge for essay questions (which I can help you practise) so that you can make the strongest argument possible. It is fundamental however to do this in the plan first. Always begin an essay knowing where it will end so that there is a continuous and consistent argument throughout. I know it can often be hard when you grow to prefer or support a theory in your studies, particularly if you are then asked to interrogate or justify it. My greatest piece of advice for a philosophy student would be to always question why you like the theory, is it because it appeals to your intuition or your stance on morality or existence? Even if you decide that you want to fully support a theory in the conclusion of an essay- you still have to fill the essay! No idea or conception is perfect, and it is your job as a philosopher to place pressure on the theory and use your own ideas to try to find holes within it. It can often seem a little intimidating to introduce your own counter arguments against big philosophers like Plato or Aristotle, but you have to remember that your opinion is just as valid and interesting and the examiner will appreciate the bravery! One key point to look for in this situation is if the argument depends on any presuppositions or assumptions. Does the utility principle of utilitarianism presuppose human enjoyment to be the goal of life? If the goal of life is something else, does the theory still hold? Do not be afraid to mix and match your knowledge from the topics and even from other subjects and reading. As long as it is relevant and you are enhancing your argument you should believe in your power to convince the reader (I managed to reference a Louis Theroux documentary in one of my A Level examinations!).
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Megan  W. A Level English Literature tutor, IB English Literature tut...

15 hours ago

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How would you test for the presence of a non-reducing sugar?

We can check for the presence of non-reducing sugars the Benedick's Test. If a reducing sugar is present in a solution, adding Benedick's reagent and heating will form an insoluble red precipitate. Non-reducing sugars do not change the colour of the solution, which is blue, and so we have to break the sugar down to monosaccharides by hydrolysis to prove they're non-reducing. So, when the Benedick's test gives a negative result, add dilute hydrochloric acid and put this in a water bath; this will hydrolise the bonds between the disaccharides. Hydrogen carbonate is then added to neutralise the solution as Benedick's reagent doesn't work under acidic conditions. Re-do the Benedick's test- if a non-reducing sugar was present, the solution will now produce a red precipitate, if no no reducing or non-reducing sugars were present, the solution will remain blue.
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1 day ago

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How do I form the imperfect subjunctive?

To form the imperfect active subjunctive, you take the perfect active infinitive of a verb and you add endings that are (almost) identical to the usual present active indicative verbs. For example, the 3rd person singular active subjunctive of 'amo' would be amare + t = amaret. Similarly, for the imperfect passive subjunctive, you take the present active infinitive and add the usual present passive indicative endings (e.g. 3rd person singular passive subjunctive of 'amo' would be amare + tur = amaretur)
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2 days ago

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How to use the conditional tense

Go through conjugating verb after verb after verb to root the conjugation in the student's mind and then start using it in sentences by saying the sentence in english and asking them to translate and then move on to them creating sentences of their own
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2 days ago

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How do I use Pythagoras' Theorem to calculate the hypotenuse of a triangle?

[use of board] So, Pythagoras' theorem states that a^2+b^2=c^2. Therefore, we need to mark the triangle with a, b &c. a and b do not matter, c must be the longest edge, that creates the diagonal. Put the lengths a and b into the theorem. According to BIDMAS, you must square the numbers first, then add them together afterwards. This will give you a value for c^2. Use a calculator (or your brain) to find the square root of this number... This will leave you with c, the hypotenuse.
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Cathy T. 11 Plus English tutor, GCSE English tutor, 13 Plus  English ...

3 days ago

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How do I structure an effective essay, for example for Lord of the Flies?

To answer this question, let's suggest that the essay question is 'How is human nature shown to change throughout the novel?' The best way to structure an essay is using the PEAL method: Point, Evidence, Analysis, Link. Firstly, you need to choose a point that answers the question, for example, that the boys' language changes as they move away from civilisation. Then, find some evidence in the text, e.g. the chant 'Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood!' Then, analyse the evidence. Here, you could discuss the imperatives 'kill,' 'cut' and 'spill' and how these demonstrate that the boys are becoming wild. Alternatively, you could discuss the use of exclamation marks, which show the excitement that the boys feel for death, and compare it to the more docile language at the beginning of Golding's text. Finally, link your response back to the question. A simple sentence such as 'This demonstrates that the boys become more carnal throughout the text, as their nature changes from well behaved schoolboys to more animalistic creatures.
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Cathy T. 11 Plus English tutor, GCSE English tutor, 13 Plus  English ...

3 days ago

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How do I learn when to use each case and not confuse them in speech or writing?

The case system in Russian can be quite daunting, especially because it is a very different structure to what we use in English. Memorizing each individual ending can take a long time and a lot of practice, and doesn't necessarily result in a good understanding of when different cases should be used. Instead, try thinking of some example phrases for the use of each case. Learn the English equivalent of what each case usually expresses, and then learn the examples. For example, the prepositional case generally expresses 'in' or 'about': Example phrase: I live in the city / я живу в городе (ya jivu v gorodye) This phrase provides an example for both the endings that may be used, and a context it may be used in. Example phrase: I think about the difficult questions / Я думаю о трудных вопросах (ya dumayu o trudnikh voprosakh) In these examples, we are shown situations in which the cases may be used, and a few example endings, so we can see when each might be used and how they are different. The next step is to learn the prepositions and endings for each case. Although practice is needed to learn the endings, through having already learned some example sentences, you will begin with a better understanding of the differences of each case, you will already know a few example endings, and will be provided with a pattern to follow during speaking or writing to help you decline each word without having to guess. Also, through having learnt the examples, it becomes easier to associate the different endings with their actual meaning and therefore not confuse them.
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Alex P. A Level Spanish tutor, GCSE Spanish tutor, IB Spanish tutor, ...

3 days ago

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