21805 questions

Explore Shakespeare's presentation of women in 'Hamlet'

Despite there being only two female character's in the play, both Ophelia and Gertrude hold important roles as plot devices used to reveal and exacerbate the corruption both within the court and outside in the country of Denmark. Indeed, Gertrude's position as the corrupt Queen spurs on Hamlet's madness and poisons the very fabric of Denmark itself, and Ophelia falls victim to Hamlet's subsequent disillusionment with women, exposing the 'rotten' nature of the State which even preys on the innocent.
Gertrude, as both the mother of Hamlet and Queen of Denmark bears a lot of responsibility for the extremely negative state the country and her son are in. Not only has her action in marrying Claudius betrayed her son and her old husband, but she has also entered into an 'incestuous' marriage which disregards the teachings of the bible. Thus, she is sinful as well as morally wrong. Hamlet likens her to a 'beast,' dehumanising her very person due to the lack of mourning for his father, but the sheer extent of her betrayal is only exposed as Hamlet reveals that she has broken his 'heart.' Clearly, due to her actions Gertrude has sent Hamlet down a path of melancholy which in the Elizabethan period would have been equivalent to sending him towards madness and doom. Hamlet is so disillusioned by his mother's attitude he condemns the entirety of female-kind as 'frailty, thy name is woman.' Gertrudes corruption is so potent she determines the state of the country by destroying the integrity of the monarchy immediately and emotionally scarring the heir to create lasting consequences for its future.
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Sonika P.

Answered by Sonika, English Literature A Level tutor with MyTutor

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How to solve 3(x+4) = 7x + 8

When approaching a question like this, there are a couple of key concepts you should keep in mind. Firstly, whatever we do to one side of the equation we must do to the other. Secondly, to cancel out an operation on one side of the equation, we do the reverse operation. Using our question as an example, after mutiplying out the brackets we are left with 3x + 12 = 7x + 8. Now consider our second key concept. What is the reverse of addition? Subtraction. So we subtract 8 from both sides and we also subtract 3x from both sides. This leaves us with 4x = 4. We simply divide through by 4 now and are left with x = 1. We can check this by subbing in x = 1 into our original equation.
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Paul S.

Answered by Paul, Maths GCSE tutor with MyTutor

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Describe the process of DNA replication

DNA replicates via semi-conservative replication. This means one strand acts as the template strand. The enzyme DNA Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between base pairs in DNA. This unwinds the DNA, exposing the template strand. DNA free nucleotides are able to bind to the exposed template strand via complimentary base pairing. This process allows hydrogen bonds between bases to form. The sugar-phosphate backbone is formed by the formation of phosphodiester bonds between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the deoxyribose sugar of the next nucleotide. This is catalysed by the enzyme DNA Polymerase, in the 5' to 3' direction.
Extension: This occurs continuously on the leading strand, but forms fragments called Ozaki fragments on the lagging strand. The fragments are then joined by DNA ligase.
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Joanna D.

Answered by Joanna, Biology A Level tutor with MyTutor

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Describe how oxygen is released from a red blood cell (6 marks)

As muscle cells respire, CO2 is released into the plasma and diffuses into the red blood cells. The CO2 reacts with water in the cells to form H2CO3 (carbonic acid) which then dissociates into H+ and HCO3- ions. This reaction is catalysed by carbonic anhydrase. The HCO3- ions diffuse out of the red blood cells so Cl- ions diffuse into the cells (chloride shift). The H+ ions react with oxyhaemoglobin (HbO8) in the red blood cells to form HHb (haemoglobinic acid) and 4O2. The oxygen diffuses out of the red blood cells, into the plasma and into the muscle cells for respiration. This is the Bohr Effect.
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Katie D.

Answered by Katie, who has applied to tutor Biology A Level with MyTutor

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What is the differential of tan(x) ?

We can make this question more approachable by breaking down tan(x) using a fundamental trigonometric identity. We know that tan(x) = sin(x) / cos(x) , and can use this to our advantage. When we have the differential of a function over another function, we can use The Quotient Rule. The quotient rule is as follows :
d/dx [f(x) / g(x) ] = [ g(x) f '(x) - f(x) g' (x) ] / [g(x)] 2
Inputting sin(x) / cos (x) into this equation, we are left with [ cos(x)*cos(x) - sin(x)*(-sin(x)) ] / cos^2(x)
We can reduce this by remembering the identity "cos^2(x) + sin^2(x) = 1 "
This leaves us with 1/cos^2(x), or sec^2(x).
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Hugh F.

Answered by Hugh, Maths A Level tutor with MyTutor

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What is the inverse of a function and how do you find it?

- A function, f(x), is something that takes various input values of x, and for each one, generates an output value, e.g. if f(x) = x2 then when x=3, f(x) = f(3) = (3)2 = 9, which is the output of the function. - The inverse of a function, f-1(x), essentially undoes the work of the function, e.g. if f(x) = x2 then f-1(x) = x1/2 , so it can be thought of as the exact opposite of the original function. Finding the inverse of a function can be done in 4 simple steps - as an example, say we have a function f(x) = 2x+1: Step 1. To make everything easier to write, we first rename f(x) as y, by writing y = f(x), e.g. write y = 2x+1. Step 2. Now swap the x's and y's, e.g. x = 2y+1, this is what 'inverts' the function. Step 3. Rearrange the equation to make y the subject, e.g. x = 2y+1  then  x-1 = 2y  then  y = (x-1)/2. Step 4. We now have our inverse function, this being whatever y equals, so it can be written as f-1(x) = (x-1)/2.
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Jack M.

Answered by Jack, who has applied to tutor Maths GCSE with MyTutor

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Can a firm operating in a perfectly competitive market maintain abnormal profits in the long-run?

No. Firms operating in the long-run cannot maintain abnormal profits as rival firms will see that abnormal profits are being made (perfect knowledge) and will enter the industry (no barriers to entry). Therefore, market supply increases and the price falls until all abnormal profits are competed away and firms make normal profits in the long-run.
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Francesca H.

Answered by Francesca, Economics A Level tutor with MyTutor

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Explain how vaccination prevents illness in an individual

Vaccination involves the injection of small amounts of a pathogen - a microbe that causes disease - that is either dead or modified to provoke an immune response. Although these pathogens cannot cause disease, the body responds as if it was the real thing. The individual's white blood cells identify the antigens as non-self and begin a primary immune response, involving antibodies and phagocytosis to remove the pathogens.
After the injected pathogens have been destroyed, some white blood cells go on to become memory cells that exist in circulation for a very long time. These cells are primed to detect the antigen of the pathogen. If the person is infected with the same pathogen, but this time alive and active, they will quickly produce a secondary immune response to destroy the infecting pathogens and prevent illness.
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Jack K.

Answered by Jack, Biology GCSE tutor with MyTutor

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