Outline the stages of development as identified by Schaffer and Emerson. 4 marks

Shaffer and Emerson idetified in their longitudinal study, 4 developmental stages of attachment, each with their own identifying behaviours and anxietes. Stage 1, the asocial stage takes place within the first few weeks of the childs life. It is defined as asocial as the behaviour they expresss to humans and noninanimate objects is very similar however towards the end of this stage infants do show a preference for for social stimuli. Reciporcity and interactional sychrony are essentail in this stage as it helps to establish the infants relationship with others. The second stage of attachment is called in indiscriminate stage, taking place at around four mounths old infants are much more social and have a preferance for human company rather than inanimate objects. In this stage infants begin to show signs of stranger anxiety as they are able to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar faces. The third stage of attachment is called the discriminate attachment stage. At around 7 months old the infant will have developed a strong attachment to their primary care giver and they therefore experience separation anxiety and stranger anxiety. The fourth stage takes shortly after the third, this is when the infant has developed multiple attachments to those that are around them for instance their secondary care giver, siblings or grandparents. At this stage they do not exhibit as much stranger and separation anxiety, but they will stil feel anxious around unfamiliar faces.

Answered by Megan O. Psychology tutor


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