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What are the key points of Sutherland's (1939) Theory of Differential Association?

Key points include:

Criminal behaviour... 

1) is learnt. Southerland is behaviourist in this respect.

2) is learnt through social interaction and communication. Bandura (1961) disagrees, as mere observation is sufficent for social influence.

3) is learnt form personal groups, i.e. friends and family.

4) is learnt by adopting the motives, drives, rationalisations, and attitudes from other criminals.

5) is based on learnt conceptions of the law as either “favourable” or “unfavourable”.  Crime is adopted when the ratio of attitudes (“definitions”) towards crime are more pro-criminal than anti-criminal.

6) is influenced by frequency, duration, priority and intensity.

7) is the same as any learning process. Criminal behaviour can be developed and honed. 

8) cannot be a result of general needs and values, as those who are needy do not always turn to crime.

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