Using examples, explain the reasons why rural-urban migration occurs.

Rural-urban migration - the movement of indivdiuals from rural to urban areas - is the product of a plethora of push and pull factors, as exhibited by Lee's push-pull theory. Migration from rural to urban Brazil, for example, occurs as a result of a variety of push factors, including low-paid menial labour (often agricultural) that has become increasingly mechanized, as well as poor quality standards of living for rural workers, such as land, lack of services (schools, hospitals, electricity, water supply) as well as poor quality housing. Pull factors in urban Brazil include the prospect of industrial labour (such as in factories), greater governmental provision of schools and health services, as well as potential for workers to access the urban formal economy (in comparison to informal labour in rural areas). Better entertainment, a wider supply of housing, are also  pull factors, which, for many rural-urban migrants, becomes an important factor in the migration process, such that future generations (and children) can benefit. Nevertheless, it must be recognized that, in reality, the process of rural-urban migration is often much more complicated and uneasy for migrants: the pull factors attracting migrants to urban Brazil are often unrealized, and many migrants often reside in informal settlements (such as favelas in Rio) and work in low-paid, often dangerous, informal labour. 

Edward H. A Level Geography tutor, GCSE Geography tutor, IB Geography...

10 months ago

Answered by Edward, an IB Geography tutor with MyTutor

Still stuck? Get one-to-one help from a personally interviewed subject specialist


£20 /hr

Rosanna C.

Degree: Geographhy (Bachelors) - St. Andrews University

Subjects offered:Geography, Environmental Studies+ 1 more

Environmental Studies
-Personal Statements-

“Passionate and reliable Geography student tutoring all aspects of Geography for GCSE and IB as well as specialised topics for A level.”

£20 /hr

Roseanna S.

Degree: Education with Geography (Bachelors) - Durham University

Subjects offered:Geography, Science+ 1 more


“Hello, I'm Roseanna and I am tutoring Geography (A level and GCSE) and Chemistry & Science (GCSE). I'd love to help you enjoy these subjects as much as I do! ”

£20 /hr

Fanny P.

Degree: Geography (MA Honours) (Bachelors) - Edinburgh University

Subjects offered:Geography, English+ 1 more

-Personal Statements-

“Hi! I am a Geography student at the University of Edinburgh. I have always had a true fascination for the world around me, especially in geopolitics and glaciology! Fun fact about me? I lived with Orangutans in Sumatra, Indonesia and ...”

MyTutor guarantee

About the author

£30 /hr

Edward H.

Degree: Geography (Masters) - Oxford, Balliol College University

Subjects offered:Geography, Music+ 7 more

.TSA. Oxford.
-Personal Statements-

“I am a Geography student at Oxford University, but I also have experience tutoring in Maths, Chemistry, English, French, Mandarin Chinese, and Music. I am an ethusiastic and dedicated individual, tailoring my classes to the needs of ea...”

You may also like...

Other IB Geography questions

"A falling fertility rate is always beneficial to a country." Discuss this statement. (15 marks)

Why do countries use anti-natalist policies and can you give an example of one?

Use a population pyramid to explain changes in a country's population structure.

Identify one significant economic and one significant cultural impact of globalisation. Examine how these impacts may be seen as both positive and negative.

View IB Geography tutors

We use cookies to improve your site experience. By continuing to use this website, we'll assume that you're OK with this. Dismiss