Types of chemical bonds

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Ionic bond- this is an electrostatic force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions, i.e. a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion. 

Covalent bond- this is a bond where electrons are shared between atoms. This is an intramolecular force- it is between atoms in the same molecule.

van der Waals force- this is a weak force between molecules. Its increases with the mass of the molecules. It is an intermolecular force (between molecules).

Hydrogen bond- these are bonds of electrostatic attraction between molecules (or part of molecules) with a dipole, in which one of the atoms is hydrogen. A dipole is where the electrons in a covalent bond are not shared equally between the atoms. The atom with more protons (i.e. the heavier atom) pulls the electrons towards it, giving itself a more negative charge and the other atom (in this case hydrogen) a more positive charge. A typical example of a molecule with a dipole, that undergoes hydrogen bonding, is water. The hydrogen atoms in water are more positively charged and the oxygen atoms are more negatively charged. This creates electrostatic forces of attraction between negatively charged oxygen atoms and positively charged hydrogen atoms which are in different water molecules.

Dipole-dipole forces- these are bonds of electrostatic attraction between molecules (or part of molecules) with a dipole. A dipole is where the electrons in a covalent bond are not shared equally between the atoms. The atom with more protons (i.e. the heavier atom) pulls the electrons towards it, giving itself a more negative charge and the other atom a more positive charge. This creates electrostatic forces of attraction between negatively charged atoms and positively charged  atoms which are in different molecules.

Metallic bond- metals are made of rows of atoms in a regular arragement. The theory is that the nuclei (i.e. protons and neutrons) of the atoms remain in this regular arrangement, but that the electrons are free to move throughout the structure of the metal. The free-moving electrons are known as a "sea of electrons". The metal structure is held together by forces of electrostatic attraction between the positively charged metal nuclei and the negatively charged free-moving electrons. The free moving electrons also enable various metals to conduct electricity.

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