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What is a coordinate bond?

A coordinate bond is a covalent bond in which both the electrons in the shared pair are donated from one atom (the donor). The properties of the covalent bond are exactly the same as a normal covalent bond.

In the formation of a coordinate bond, the donor atom must have a lone pair of ectrons which it donates to the electron deficient shell of the recipient atom. It is represented as an arrow from donor to recepient.

An example of coordinate bonding is between ammonia and Hions to form an ammonium ion. The lone pair of the N in ammonia is donated to the electron free H+ ion forming a covalent bond.

Ammonia (NH3) + hydrogen chloride (HCl) -> Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)

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