Describe the roles of DNA and RNA in determining the sequence of amino acids in proteins.

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The sequence of bases (a gene) on DNA determines the order of amino acids that come together to form a polypeptide (protein) chain.

The DNA is 'unzipped' by enzymes called Helicases. This allows a single strand of DNA to be copied (transcription) to form a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA).

The mRNA then leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores and enters the cytoplasm.

In the cytoplasm the mRNA associates with a ribosome.

Free amino acids within the cytoplasm are brought together in the correct order (determined by the sequence of the mRNA) to form a polypeptide chain (protein).

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