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How are specialised cells different to normal body cells?

Different parts of the body have very different functions, so it is important that the cells in these different parts have adapted in order to help the functioning to be more efficient.

For example, red blood cells are shaped as a biconcave disc (indented on each side), which means that they are able to bend and squeeze through smaller vessels in the body. They also don't have a nucleus, so they have more space for haemoglobin and therefore more space for oxygen, which attaches to the haemoglobin. Overall, this means that red blood cells are very well adapted to transporting oxygen to distant organs.

Another example is ciliated cells. Cilliated cells have tiny 'hairs' along their surface, which are able to push mucous along. Ciliated cells line the lungs, which is why if you have a bad chest infection you are able to cough up phlegm, or mucous, which helps to get rid of bacteria.

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