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How are chloroplasts adapted to their function?

Many grana, large surface area for photosynthetic pigments, electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes. 

Photosynthetic pigments are arranged into structures called photosystems, allows maximum absorption of light energy. 

Chloroplasts can make some of the proteins they need for photosynthesis, using genetic info from the chloroplast DNA and using the 70S ribosomes to make the proteins.

Grana surrounded by the stroma so the products from the light dependent reaction (which occur across the thylakoid membrane which make up the grana) can readily pass into the stroma for the light independent reaction. 

Chlorophyll is a mixture of pigments containing a long hydrocarbon chain and a porphyrin group with a magnesium atom in the centre. Chlorophyll a (and b) are found at the centre of the photosystems and are known as the primary pigment reaction centre. Each absorb red light at a slightly different wavelength.

Accessory pigments do not contain a porphyrin group and are not directly involved in the light dependent reaction. They absorb light wavelengths that are not well absorbed by chlorophylls and pass the light energy to chlorophyll a at the base of the photosystem. Carotenoids reflect yellow and orange light and absorb blue light. Carotene and xanthophyll are the main carotenoid pigments. 

They also contain lipid droplets which can be used in making the phospholipid bilayer of the inner and outer membrane of the chloroplast. 

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