How are chloroplasts adapted to their function?

Many grana, large surface area for photosynthetic pigments, electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes. 

Photosynthetic pigments are arranged into structures called photosystems, allows maximum absorption of light energy. 

Chloroplasts can make some of the proteins they need for photosynthesis, using genetic info from the chloroplast DNA and using the 70S ribosomes to make the proteins.

Grana surrounded by the stroma so the products from the light dependent reaction (which occur across the thylakoid membrane which make up the grana) can readily pass into the stroma for the light independent reaction. 

Chlorophyll is a mixture of pigments containing a long hydrocarbon chain and a porphyrin group with a magnesium atom in the centre. Chlorophyll a (and b) are found at the centre of the photosystems and are known as the primary pigment reaction centre. Each absorb red light at a slightly different wavelength.

Accessory pigments do not contain a porphyrin group and are not directly involved in the light dependent reaction. They absorb light wavelengths that are not well absorbed by chlorophylls and pass the light energy to chlorophyll a at the base of the photosystem. Carotenoids reflect yellow and orange light and absorb blue light. Carotene and xanthophyll are the main carotenoid pigments. 

They also contain lipid droplets which can be used in making the phospholipid bilayer of the inner and outer membrane of the chloroplast. 

Matthew A. Mentoring -Medical School Preparation- tutor, Uni Admissio...

1 year ago

Answered by Matthew, an A Level Biology tutor with MyTutor

Still stuck? Get one-to-one help from a personally interviewed subject specialist


PremiumJon S. GCSE Biology tutor, GCSE Maths tutor, A Level Economics tutor,...
View profile
£24 /hr

Jon S.

Degree: Economics & Bioscience (Bachelors) - Exeter University

Subjects offered: Biology, Maths+ 1 more


“I'm a first year student at Exeter University studying  Bioscience & Economics. I've enjoyed teaching for over a year now and I'm hoping my tutorials engage you with your subject, or at the very least help you get the grade you are lo...”

Abigail C. A Level Biology tutor, GCSE Chemistry tutor, GCSE Maths tu...
View profile
£20 /hr

Abigail C.

Degree: Biosciences (Masters) - Durham University

Subjects offered: Biology, Maths+ 1 more


“About me I am studying biological sciences at Durham University. I have always really loved science, and I hope to enthuse others with this and help them to be willing to learn. There were some topics I found challenging but eventua...”

Vinayak N. A Level Biology tutor, GCSE Biology tutor, Mentoring -Medi...
View profile
£22 /hr

Vinayak N.

Degree: medicine (Bachelors) - Nottingham University

Subjects offered: Biology, Maths+ 2 more

-Medical School Preparation-

“ABOUT ME AND MY TEACHING STYLE     I am a final year medical student at Nottingham and I like to take a friendly relaxed approach to both being a student and a teacher. I am easy going and very passionate about both teaching and scien...”

About the author

Matthew A. Mentoring -Medical School Preparation- tutor, Uni Admissio...
View profile

Matthew A.

Currently unavailable:

Degree: Medicine MBBS 5 (Bachelors) - St. George's University

Subjects offered: Biology, Maths+ 4 more

-Personal Statements-
-Medical School Preparation-

“Hi, my name is Matt and I'm a medical student at St George's University of London. I achieved A*A*A* at A level in Biology, Chemistry and Maths and 8 A*'s at GCSE . After having recently gone through the exam process, now more than ev...”

MyTutor guarantee

You may also like...

Other A Level Biology questions

Describe what is meant by photoperiodism

What is the difference between interspecific competition and intraspecific competition?

What is alternative splicing

What are the main differences between Mitosis and Meiosis?

View A Level Biology tutors


We use cookies to improve our service. By continuing to use this website, we'll assume that you're OK with this. Dismiss