Describe and explain the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

For this kind of question, facts such as how this is the last step of aerobic respiration, which happens in the mitochondrial membrane - most specifically the cristae (inner folds of the mitochondria) - should be known to answer it correctly.From there, I would be looking out for the following aspects of this process: ((1)) The main idea of oxydative phosphorylation (aka electron transport chain) its that it creates and uses a hydrogen proton gradient to generate sufficient energy to produce ATP. 1.a) Gradient between the mitochondrial matrix and the intermembrane space. ((2)) The release of electrons by NADH/FADH2 to the electron carriers is fundamental part of this process. ((3)) The electrons are passed between the carries, and as they do, they lose energy. ((4)) The energy is used to pump hydrogen from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space. 4.a) Further establishes the protein gradient. ((5)) Due to the protein gradient chemiosmosis happens: 5.a) H+ found in the intermembrane space want to go back to the lower H+ concentration of the matrix. (5.b) Go through ATP synthase. 5.c) This movement then provides enough energy to phosphorylate ADP+P into ATP. ((6)) The electron that was being carried through the chain is the accepted by oxygen, generating a water molecule. This then becomes one of the final products of aerobic respiration. 

Answered by Alejandro E. Biology tutor

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