MYTUTOR SUBJECT ANSWERS

1300 views

What is the difference between the primary and secondary immune response?

The Primary Immune Response occurs at first contact with the pathogen. 

The body takes several days to build up a sufficient amount of antibodies. There is a three-pronged attack in response to primary exposure to infection, which is non specific and is often referred to as the second line of defense. It involves: 

1. Inflammation - macrophages and other white blood cells release alarm chemicals, including histamine which makes capillaries more leaky. This causes leucocytes (white blood cells to move into the area. 

2.Phagocytosis- phagocytes (neutrophils and leucocytes will engulf some of the invading pathogen when they recognise the presented foreign antigen.

3. Interferon- Macrophages will produces chemicals that inhibit the proliferation of the pathogen cells. 

(All of the above is a non-specific response, which happens due to recognising universal proteins and glycoproteins that are present in many bacterial and viral strains).

The Specific, but still innate/primary response happens next. 

1.T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are made in the bone marrow. T cells migrate to the thymus, and B cells mature in the bone marrow. The T cells are involved in the cell mediated response where upon antigen presentation, they mount an attack on the pathogen dependending on whether they are T killer, memory, helper or suppressor cell. B cells proliferate and these clones turn into plasma cells which make antibodies or memory cells.

 

The secondary immune response 

Should the body encounter an antigen it has responded to in the past, T memory cells and plasma cells are already able to deal with it efficiently (hence the term, adaptive immunity ).Plasma cells which are waiting in the lymph nodes quickly proliferate  and the anti body level rises in response to a secondary attack. 

Daisy G. A Level Biology tutor, GCSE Biology tutor, GCSE Classical Ci...

2 years ago

Answered by Daisy, who tutored A Level Biology with MyTutor


Still stuck? Get one-to-one help from a personally interviewed subject specialist

121 SUBJECT SPECIALISTS

£20 /hr

Visitation L.

Degree: Biomedical sciences (Bachelors) - Durham University

Subjects offered: Biology, Maths

Biology
Maths

“Hi, I am Visitation, a second year Biomedical scientist at Durham. Science and Maths are such fascinating subjects and I would like to share my passion and help you through my tutorials!”

£20 /hr

Alexander A.

Degree: Molecular Cell Biology (with a year in industry) (Bachelors) - York University

Subjects offered: Biology, Maths

Biology
Maths

“I am an enthusiastic and patient tutor with a love for science that I want to share!  I am currently reading molecular cell biology at the University of York. I have had previous experiencing tutoring at A-level peer mentoring as part...”

MyTutor guarantee

£20 /hr

Alana F.

Degree: Law (Bachelors) - Durham University

Subjects offered: Biology, Geography+ 3 more

Biology
Geography
Extended Project Qualification
English
.LNAT.

“About me I am currently studying law at Durham University. I have always enjoyed reading and so a degree with this at its centre is perfect for me! In the past two years I have tutored a number of Biology and English students tackling...”

About the author

Daisy G.

Currently unavailable: no new students

Degree: Zoology (Bachelors) - Exeter University

Subjects offered: Biology, Classical Civilisation+ 1 more

Biology
Classical Civilisation
-Personal Statements-

“ I'm a second year BSc Zoology student. I have previous experience tutoring chemistry and biology GCSE students after school and A level biology students. I pride myself on making lessons interesting and memorable, and have previou...”

You may also like...

Other A Level Biology questions

What are the key steps in the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis?

Explain the structure of a Protein and how this can relate to its function.

How do new species evolve?

Explain what is meant by active transport

View A Level Biology tutors

Cookies:

We use cookies to improve our service. By continuing to use this website, we'll assume that you're OK with this. Dismiss

mtw:mercury1:status:ok