18652 questions

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a Public Limited Company?

ADVANTAGESBeing a PLC means that you are able to raise large amounts of funds from share holders quickly. Further to this, PLCs are able to gain credibility by being listed on the stock exchange and thus be able to gain large loans from banks. Both sources of capital will be crucial to the company in commanding, high sales, innovative products and growth. Moreover, listing as a PLC , means that production can be scaled up whilst unit costs are decreased. This is called Economies of Scale and is what allows companies to develop dominance in a market as they are able to drive competitors out of the market by offering lower prices for customers.
DISADVANTAGESBeing listed as a PLC does also have its draw backs. It means that the company is more vulnerable to takeovers. This is because the shares of the company can be bought off the stock market. Further to this, PLCs are under the scrutiny of very regimented accounting standards regulation. This can be quite complex and time consuming for companies to adhere to. If accounting standards are not on par with regulations, the company may be faced with fines and sanctions. Furthermore, company financial information is readily available when listed as a PLC, on websites such as Companies House. As well as the need to have accounts audited, they are often scrutinized by analysts and by the media. This could mean unwanted attention being brought to the companies financial position, thus, leading to speculation, short term volatility and risk.
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Kaimana D.

Answered by Kaimana, Business Studies tutor with MyTutor

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Outline and Evaluate behavioural methods of treating phobias

A01(6 Marks): Treatment 1 - Systematic Desensitisation (SD) - Anxiety hierarchyList of situations related to phobic stimulus, rated from least to most frightening. E.g. picture of stimulus= least frightening; touching stimulus= most frightening. Relaxation Breathing exercises, meditation, or drugs can be used to help a patient to learn how to relax. Exposure Patient exposed to phobic stimulus in a relaxed state. This will be the final stage, after working their way up the anxiety hierarchy over many sessions. Treatment 2 - Flooding - Exposing people patients to their phobic stimulus with no gradual build up. People tend to quickly learn that their phobic stimulus is harmless once exposed to it, curing them of their phobia through 'extinction' effects. Patients need to give full informed consent before they can participate in a flooding session, as it can be quite traumatic.
A03 - 10 Marks - 5 evaluation points:Flooding is unethical - Highly traumatic for some patients. Patients are usually very unwilling to see this type of therapy through to the end and give up straight away. Flooding is cost effective - Flooding is much quicker than any gradual alternatives, like SD. Treatment is much cheaper with only one or two sessions being the norm for flooding therapy. SD is more acceptable - Patients generally prefer this method. Not as much trauma is caused, and although multiple sessions may be expensive, people prefer this as a strategy to get over their phobia. SD is accessible - This therapy can be used for all patients. Factors such as learning disabilities will not affect the level of benefit a patient will get from such therapy. Diverse range of people can be treated. Flooding may not work for some types of phobia - Flooding is less effective for more complex phobias.
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Tyler M.

Answered by Tyler, Psychology tutor with MyTutor

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To what extent to complex realities and relationships of power make the concept of human rights an unachievable ideal?

The claim that complex realities and relationships of power make human rights ideals unattainable implies that these power relationships limit international cooperation on human rights issues, thus making the human rights notions of universality, indivisibility, inalienability and interdependence unachievable. On the one side of such a debate is the claim that sovereignty remains the ultimate standard of global politics, meaning that HR abuses under the claim of cultural relativism, are difficult to challenge and specifically undermine the universality and indivisibility of the human rights ideal. On the contrary, the effectiveness of regional courts such as the ECtHR serves as evidence that the complex power relationships can sometimes be overcome, and even state sovereignty challenged, in pursuit of human rights ideals. The ECtHR court supports this, challenging state sovereignty in the pursuit of justice. It can thus be drawn that the complexities of power relationships in global politics can be overcome through state consent to schemes of international justice, but that state sovereignty remains the basis of international relations, as even cases of effective HR jurisdiction rely on states' consent to such schemes of justice.
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Rustan S.

Answered by Rustan, Politics tutor with MyTutor

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When do you use the different cases?

German is split into four different cases: the nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. Each case indicates something about the sentence, which can be established by asking certain questions. Nominative: who is the person doing the verb? Accusative, who or what is being directly impacted by the verb? Dative, is there someone receiving the object, or something that is the indirect object of the verb? Genitive, does the object belong to someone? Not all sentences use all the cases, but to show how they work we will take an example sentence which does. The sentence is: "Ich gebe dir das Hemd meiner Frau" (I'm giving you my wife's shirt). So to find the nominative, we need to ask: who is the person doing the verb? Our verb is to give, so who is the person giving something? It is me, I am giving something (Ich). Next, to find the accusative, we must ask: who or what is directly impacted by the verb? So who or what is being given? In this case, this is the shirt (das Hemd), or more precisely the wife's shirt (das Hemd meiner Frau). Now, to find the dative we need to ask if someone is receiving the object? Or, in this case, who is being given the wife's shirt? You are (dir). So this is our dative. Finally, to find our genitive we need to ask: does the object belongs to someone? The object is the shirt, does it belong to someone? Yes it does, it belongs to my wife (meine Frau), this is indicated by adding an 'r' to 'meine Frau' similarly to adding an " 's " to my wife's shirt in English. Therefore to summarise there are four cases, the most common are the nominative and accusative, as most sentences have a verb and an object, however the dative and genitive are also commonly used. To know when to use them, one can ask themselves certain questions. who is the person doing the verb? (nominative)who or what's being directly impacted by this verb? (accusative)is there someone receiving the object, or something that is the indirect object of the verb? (dative)And finally, does the object of the verb belong to someone? (genitive)
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Ellie P.

Answered by Ellie, German tutor with MyTutor

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In 'To a Daughter Leaving Home', how does the poet present the speaker's feelings about her daughter?

If asked this question by a student, I would suggest they tackle it by identifying the over-arching tone of the speaker's feelings, and then drawing out three differing aspects of this and expanding upon them. I feel this strategy is applicable to most poetry analysis at this level, and for this specific question we might focus initially on the sense of the speaker's care for their daughter presented. This can then be broken down into intimacy, concern, and loss. Below is a quick rundown of what one might say about each of these feelings.
In 'To a Daughter Leaving Home', the poet presents an overall sense of the speaker's care for her daughter. We see feelings of intimacy, concern, and acceptance being enacted. The speaker's feelings of intimacy with her daughter are presented at the poem's opening, and may be seen in the first line, 'When I taught you'. Here, the proximity of the pronouns 'I' and 'you' clearly identifies the mother with her daughter, and the monosyllabic quality of the line as a whole suggests a parity between them as family members. Lines three and four expand this, as the poet writes 'loping along / beside you'. The use of the preposition 'beside' shows the physical proximity of mother and daughter, in turn enacting a sense of emotional proximity. We also see here a sense of the mother's concern for her daughter being presented. The bounding quality of 'loping' suggests an eagerness to keep up on the speaker's behalf, something reflected further in the past participle 'sprinted'. The assonance of 'crash' and 'catch' in lines 13 and 14 links the two, presenting the speaker's concern that her daughter may be harmed, showing the desire of the former to protect the latter. Finally, we see the speaker's feeling of loss that her daughter is growing up being presented. The simile of 'hair flapping / behind you like a / handkerchief waving / goodbye' projects the speaker's sense of loss onto her daughter's body enacting a sense of sadness.
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Thomas M.

Answered by Thomas, who has applied to tutor English with MyTutor

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Functions: If f(x)=3x^2 - 4 and g(x) = x + 3, 1) Evaluate f(3), 2) Find the inverse of f(x) (f^-1(x)), 3)Find fg(x).

1) in this case x=3 so you substitute it into f(x) to get f(3) = 3(3)2 - 4 = 3*9 -4 = 27 - 4 = 232) There are 2 methods to this question, a logical method, and a more mathematical method. The logical method is working backwards through BIDMAS so the last operation you perform with f(x) is -4, so the opposite of this would be the first operation of f-1(x) and the next is the 3 then the x2 , so f-1(x) = ((x+4)/3)1/2.The mathematical method is to make f(x)=y and rewrite the equation y=3x2 -4, then swap the two variable x & y, x=3y2-4, and finally you make y the subject of the equation by rearranging the equation. x+4=3y2 , (x+4)/3 = y2 , ((x+4)/3)1/2 = y, and therefore f-1(x) = ((x+4)/3)1/2, which is the same as the previous method, and a good way to check these answers is to put your answer from 1) into the equation and you should end up with 3, f-1(23) = ((23+4)/3)1/2=3.3)The hardest part is remembering the order in which you place the functions, the best way to think about it is working outwards from the brackets, so g is applied to x first, then once that function is complete, you apply f to the answer to that i.e. g(x) = x + 3. so fg(x) is the same as f(x+3) which is fg(x) = 3(x+3)2-4 and then you can expand this expression to get a quadratic equation, fg(x) = 3x2+18x + 23.
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Jason P.

Answered by Jason, Maths tutor with MyTutor

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I don't understand what to look for in the linguistic of fiction?

There are a wide array of literary techniques, amongst them similes and metaphors. These help the author to give more depth and clarity to what they are trying to express. Some form of linguistic techniques are connotations of a particular word or phrase (using something similar to for descriptive effect)/
Some writers chose to repeat ideas or images, these can act as a motif in their text. This is a recurring subject or idea, and can be used as foreshadowing in certain cases.
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Alisa D.

Answered by Alisa, English Language tutor with MyTutor

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The notion of the American Dream figures prominently in this story. How should readers define "American dream"? Moreover, is pursuing the American Dream necessarily a good thing, as evidenced by The Great Gatsby?

The idea of an American Dream was coined by historian James Truslow Adams in his 1931 book The Epic of America, and characterised as a dream in which “each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable… regardless of [the] circumstances of [their] birth or position”. The dream is more commonly typified as one’s ability to go from ‘rags to riches’ in America, however, there is a deeper sense of the ‘dream’ that goes to the core of the American identity, right back to its ‘Founding Fathers’. America’s first settlers, who left Europe because of religious persecution in the early 16th century, came to the New World with a dream of peace, prosperity and a new way of life. The Great Gatsby can be read as a criticism of the conspicuous consumption of the roaring twenties and the debasement of the American dream from ideas of opportunity to ones of just getting rich. 
Jay Gatsby might be seen to personify both the original, uncorrupted American Dream and the corrupted Dream of the 1920s that Fitzgerald is criticising. While his actions are motivated by an honest and noble desire, his love for Daisy, he can only envisage his solutions through achieving great wealth, which he does through corrupted and illegal means. Seen in this light, therefore, Gatsby’s failure to achieve his dream of marrying Daisy can be read as an allegory for America’s own failings in realising its Dream.
Fitzgerald, however, treats Gatsby as something of a tragic hero by the end of the novel, celebrating his earnestness and the integrity of his motives. ’They’re a rotten crowd.’ Nick says to Gatsby, ‘You’re worth the whole damn bunch put together.’ Nick’s use of the word ‘rotten’ is significant here as it describes something that was once healthy but has since become infected and been spoiled, true both of the characters of the novel (aside from Gatsby) and of Fitzgerald’s notion of the American Dream. ‘The Great Gatsby’ suggests, therefore, that while there is an integrity at the heart of the American Dream, the corruption of the dream by the 1920s means that pursuit of it will inevitably result in a disappointed, frustrated outcome.
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James T.

Answered by James, who has applied to tutor English with MyTutor

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