17772 questions

Read lines 31–42. By referring to both word choice and sentence structure, analyse how the writer creates a negative impression of adults. (4 marks) (Question taken from the 2016 Higher English past paper)

Passage"Of course, it would be naïve to suggest that all teenagers can be as accomplished as Malala. However, there is, in fact, considerable evidence that the “unfinished” brain can be pretty good at sport, music, creating computer software and raising thousands of pounds for charity. True, 16-year-olds can be rude, sulky, reckless and unreliable. But the adult world is scarcely exempt from these characteristics. Perhaps — as politicians must hope — most teenagers know too little about politics to make self-congratulatory comparisons between themselves and the at times limited brain power on show during parliamentary debates. The evidence of their own eyes confirms that, when considering normal behaviour, 16-year-olds barely compete in terms of incivility, tantrums, profanity, impulsivity, prejudice, time-wasting and an unedifying dependency on tabloid websites, when compared to millions of fully enfranchised grown-ups. If law-makers ever think of restricting voting by the inadequately brained, illiterate, non-taxpaying or ignorant, the consequences for some adults would be chilling."This question is worth 4 marks out of 30 in a Higher Close Reading Paper, so it needs to be well answered but efficiently answered. Close reading requires thorough reading of the passage, ideally twice before attempting to answer any questions. Ideally we would analyse 2 examples. As the question emphasise we bust analyse both sentence structure and word choice. Less able students can also pick up marks by answering with 4 less developed points. The most obvious example of sentence structure is the list used on line 41. A students answer to this should: identify the type of structure, refer to it and analyse how it used to "create a negative impression of adults" On line 41 the author lists an array of bad qualities associated with the adult electorate. The use of an extended list creates a huge emphasis on the lack of attributes that many adults have and how many adults are no more qualified to vote that teenagers. The list emphasises that by virtue of being an adult, does not make someone clever or politically minded, and in fact, create a larger negative impression by saying implying they are of less value than many young people. The list further creates a bad impression of adults by imply there is a large number of adults with these bad qualities.The student must also refer to one example of word choice that creates a negative impression of adults. The author uses the word "tantrums" when comparing teenagers to adults. By using this word the writer immediately bring the reader to think of children losing control of their emotions in fits of anger. By attributing this quality to adults, the writer suggests that many adults are no more emotionally evolved that children, creating a negative impression of adults attempts to deal with anger.



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Morvern C.

Answered by Morvern, English tutor with MyTutor

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Outline and evaluate the behaviourist approach (16 marks)

The behaviourist approach has four main assumptions. The first being is that all behaviours are learnt from the environment. The second assumption is that animals and humans learn in the same way which has resulted in research being carried on animals so that the results can be extrapolated to humans. Behaviourists believe that psychology should be scientific and objective which is why they mainly use laboratory experiments. They also mainly focus on behaviour that’s is observable. There are two main areas of conditioning which behaviourist have researched into.The first is classical conditioning which states that behaviours are learnt by association. A main example of this is Ivan Pavlov’s dog experiment. Pavlov managed to condition dogs to salivate when they heard a bell. At first when the dogs where presented the food they salivated. The food was the unconditioned stimulus and the salivation was the unconditioned response. He then introduced a neutral stimulus which was the bell. Eventually the dogs salivated when no food was given and just the bell was sounded. The bell was then the conditioned stimulus and the salivation was the conditioned response.The other type of conditioning is operant conditioning which states that learning is an active process and that behaviours is learnt on consequences and reinforcement. If there is positive reinforcement for a behaviour such as a reward is it likely to be repeated. There is also negative reinforcement which occurs when an action stops something unpleasant from happening. If there is punishment the behaviour won’t be repeated. Skinners box is an example of research which looks at positive and negative reinforcement. In one box there was a hungry rat and a level which when activated released a food pellet. The rat soon learnt that the pushing the lever would result in food and would go straight there once put in. In another box a rat was placed and was subjected to a current. There was a lever which when pressed would stop the current. Once the rat hit the lever once it quickly learnt to go to the lever to stop the current.There are many advantages and disadvantages of this approach. One of the main advantages is that there is a lot of evidence to back up theories. Pavlov showed that classical conditioning leads to learning by association. This alongside the scientific methods adds credibility to psychology. Laboratory experiments were used with high control of extraneous variables. Allowing the methods to be replicated and the data obtained to be objective and measurable. Another advantage of the approach is that there are many practical applications. Systematic desensitisation which is based on classical conditioning has been used in the treatment of phobias. Classical and operant conditioning have also been used to explain attachment. However, some critics argue that animals are cognitively and physiologically different to humans, so the data cannot be applied to humans. The approach is also criticised for not taking human free will and biological factors into consideration causing their theories to be described as overly simplified. They argue that due to the many different factors involved behaviour cannot be explained simply.
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Radhika J.

Answered by Radhika, Psychology tutor with MyTutor

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Should the First Past The Post electoral system continue to be used for Westminster elections?

Many would argue that the system of First Past The Post ("FPTP"), which is used to elect MPs in Westminster elections is flawed for a variety of reasons. Firstly, FPTP creates a system of two-party dominance. This means that often votes for third parties are wasted. This was evident in the 2015 general elections, where UKIP secured nearly four million votes, yet only won 1 seat. Conversely, the Conservatives got 11.3 million votes, and 329 seats. This highly disproportionate system is unrepresentative of the people's voice. Moreover, the unrepresentative nature of FPTP leads to a system of tactical voting, where rather than voters voting for their first preference, they settle on their second or third preference. Overall, in the long term, this could foster political disillusionment. Crucially, FPTP also creates a system of 'safe seats' where certain constituencies are de facto tied to one party, as seen in areas like Camberwell and Peckham (Labour), and Buckingham (Conservative). This not only creates voter apathy amongst those who wouldn't vote for the dominant party, it also removes the level of accountability, and scrutiny that election campaigns should bring: opposition parties won't even try to win support in these areas, the real democratic election campaigns occur in swing seats instead. Nevertheless, despite its flaws, FPTP still remains a highly effective electoral system that should continue to be used. It's one MP - one constituency link allows for a strong link between an MP and their constituents. Moreover, two-party dominance has often led to political stability in the UK; there is a clear manifesto and a clear mandate. Coalitions, which often bring political uncertainty, are rare - like that of 2010. Even more, the alternatives to FPTP are not necessarily more democratic - the London Mayoral elections use the Supplementary Vote system, which is a majoritarian system that also retains two party dominance. More proportional systems like the Closed List system, which is used in European elections, create multi-member constituencies which remove the benefit of the close MP-constituent relationship that FPTP offers. Fundamentally, there was a referendum in 2011 which gave the British people an opportunity to change the Westminster electoral system: the people voted no to change, and kept FPTP. Therefore, it is clear that FPTP should continue to be used. It has popular support - largely because it is simple to understand, therefore, there is no need to change a system that is not broken.
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Elizabeth O.

Answered by Elizabeth, Government and Politics tutor with MyTutor

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How do I get the best grade in my exam paper?

So the first thing I would do is read the question and then re-read it. I know it sounds silly but it truly does help firstly get your head round the question and also, it gives you the opportunity to pick out the key parts of the question, so any particular words or phrases that you think would be most appropriate to your essay. Say, for example, the question was 'To what extent does nature bear significance on the meeting between Frankenstein and the creature in Frankenstein?'. The words I would pick out from that would be 'to what extent', which infers that there may be something to counter the most obvious answer, 'nature', because that is the focus of the question, and so your answer should centre on the natural surroundings, and 'significance' - this does not necessarily mean importance. In a lot of cases, significance is another word for meaning; what does a certain thing SIGNIFY. So you're going to be wanting to put some sort of value judgement in your answer, writing about what the particular types of nature MEAN. Then you can begin your answer, and remember at the end of, and throughout every point, come back to the question. Let the examiner know that you know what you're talking about.
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Holly C.

Answered by Holly, English tutor with MyTutor

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Critically analyze the personality traits of your chosen character from the French film, indigenes.

- ask the student how they would approach the question and why? - ask promting questions to get the student to expand. - provide feedback and steps to improve
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Laura I.

Answered by Laura, French tutor with MyTutor

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How do I put a verb in present tense?

First, you find the infinitive form of the verb. This is the form you find in the dictionary. In English, this is the 'to' form of the verb e.g. to live, to work, to eat. Then, you see if the verb ends in ar, ir or er. Then you remove the ar, er or ir ending, and add the new ending. The choice of new ending will depend on what you're trying to say, for example, I live is vivo, because the infinitive form you find in the dictionary is vivir, and the first person ending, used for saying 'I' used with verbs that end in an ir is 'o', so you take off the ir ending and replace it with an o.
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Lauren S.

Answered by Lauren, Spanish tutor with MyTutor

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What is polymorphism in regards to Object Oriented Programming (OOP)? Provide an example.

The word ‘polymorphism’ literally means ‘a state of having many shapes’ or ‘the capacity to take on different forms’. When applied to object oriented programming languages like Java, it describes a language’s ability to process objects of various types and classes through a single, uniform interface. For instance, let’s consider a class Vehicle and let Car be a subclass of Vehicle. So, any Car is a Vehicle. Here, Car satisfies the IS-A relationship for its own type as well as its super class Vehicle.
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Paras R.

Answered by Paras, Computing tutor with MyTutor

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'inter eos erat puella tam pulchra ut oculos omnium ad se verteret'. 1) Translate this sentence. 2) Identify the construction; what are the hints? 3) Explain the tense and mood of 'verteret'.

1) Among them was a girl so beautiful that she turned everyone's eyes towards her.2) Result Clause. 'tam' (so) is the biggest clue. 'ut + subjunctive' also means that the construction could either be a result or purpose clause.3) 'veteret' is in the subjunctive mood because it is within a result clause introduced by 'ut'. In a result clause, the tense of the subjunctive verb is dependent on the sequence of tenses: if the introductory verb is historic (perfect, imperfect, pluperfect) as it is here (erat - imperfect), then the verb in the result clause is imperfect (as veteret is here). If it were primary, the verb would be present subjunctive.
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Andrew W.

Answered by Andrew, Latin tutor with MyTutor

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