Explain the process of DNA translation

[Pre-initiation - Specific enzymes catalyse the attachment of amino acids to tRNA, requires ATP]

1) The small ribosomal subunit binds to the 5' end of mRNA and finds the (AUG) start codon 

2) Via complementary base paring, tRNA anti-codon binds to mRNA codon

3) Large ribosomal subunit aligns itself to the tRNA molecule at its P-site, forming a complex subunit

4) At the large subunits A-site another tRNA enters, attaching itself via complementary base paring

5) Complex catalyses reation covalently binding animo acids attached to tRNA in P and A-site

6) The ribosome moves along one codon position, this shifts the deacetylated tRNA to the E-site where it is ejected

7) New tRNA molecule attaches enters the newly emptied A-site and the process is repeated

8) This continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA

9) Protein may undergo final modifications by other cellular machinery before becoming functional

Answered by Hans S. Biology tutor

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