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a) 50 pens total. 2 + 7 = 9. Number of pens is done in 9s. 50/9 = 5r5, so multiple of 5. Then 2*5 + 7*5 pens. 10 red and 35 yellow, 45 pens

b) 18 red / 2 = [9]r0 31 yellow / 7 = [4]r3 So could have 9 sets of reds and 4 sets of yellows but as needs to be an exact ratio we have to pick the lower number, so 2*4 + 7*4 pens. 8 red and 28, 36 pens.