22873 questions

How does the inflammatory response defend the host against pathogens?

The inflammatory response is a quick and non-specific immune response that takes place after the pathogen breaches the host's physical and chemical barriers (skin, mucus, lysozyme...). Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized as foreign by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells. This causes degranulation of mast cells, which release histamine. Histamine promotes vasodilation and increase in vascular permeability, allowing influx of more immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and complement proteins from the blood to the site of infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes which engulf and destroy pathogens in a vacuole. Macrophages also release TNF-alpha, which acts like histamine to make capillaries more "leaky". These processes explain the four main symptoms of inflammation: heat, redness, swelling and pain.
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Ada E.

Answered by Ada, Biology A Level tutor with MyTutor

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How does the inflammatory response defend the host against pathogens?

The inflammatory response is a quick and non-specific immune response that takes place after the pathogen breaches the host's physical and chemical barriers (skin, mucus, lysozyme...). Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized as foreign by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells. This causes degranulation of mast cells, which release histamine. Histamine promotes vasodilation and increase in vascular permeability, allowing influx of more immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and complement proteins from the blood to the site of infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes which engulf and destroy pathogens in a vacuole. Macrophages also release TNF-alpha, which acts like histamine to make capillaries more "leaky". These processes explain the four main symptoms of inflammation: heat, redness, swelling and pain.
See more
Ada E.

Answered by Ada, Biology A Level tutor with MyTutor

1 view

How does the inflammatory response defend the host against pathogens?

The inflammatory response is a quick and non-specific immune response that takes place after the pathogen breaches the host's physical and chemical barriers (skin, mucus, lysozyme...). Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized as foreign by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells. This causes degranulation of mast cells, which release histamine. Histamine promotes vasodilation and increase in vascular permeability, allowing influx of more immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and complement proteins from the blood to the site of infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes which engulf and destroy pathogens in a vacuole. Macrophages also release TNF-alpha, which acts like histamine to make capillaries more "leaky". These processes explain the four main symptoms of inflammation: heat, redness, swelling and pain.
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Ada E.

Answered by Ada, Biology A Level tutor with MyTutor

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What's the difference between fixed and variable costs?

Fixed are costs that do not change with the level of output. For example, heating bills would be a fixed cost. Whether we make 100 computers or 300 computers, our fixed costs do not change. Variable costs are costs that do change with output, for example packaging. If we make 100 computers and our packaging costs are £5 per computer, the our packaging costs would be £500. This would then change if we were to make 300 computers as our cost is not £900.
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Will N.

Answered by Will, Business Studies GCSE tutor with MyTutor

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We have two straight lines AB and CD. The coordinates of A,B and C are A(1,3), B(5,9) and C(0,8). The point D lies on the line AB and is halfway between points A and B. Is the line CD perpendicular to AB?

First of all we need to find the coordinates of the point D. As D is halfway between the two points A and B, to find the midpoint of a line segment, we add the x coordinates then divide by 2, and add the y coordinates and divide by 2. This gives us D(3,6).
To find the gradient of AB, we need to divide the change in the y-coordinate by the change in the x-coordinate. (9-3)/(5-1) =3/2 so 3/2 is the gradient of the line segment AB.
As we now know our D coordinates we can work out the gradient of CD. (8-6)/(0-3)=-2/3 which is the gradient of line segment CD.
If two lines are perpendicular to one another then: (gradient of AB) x (gradient of CD) = -1
We then check this : 3/2 x -2/3 = -1 . So AB and CD are indeed perpendicular.
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Bryony H.

Answered by Bryony, who has applied to tutor Maths GCSE with MyTutor

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How should I write about work experience in my personal statement?

Work experience is an essential part of your personal statement however, people tend to list their placements rather than expressing what they have learnt and achieved. Remember: quality, not quantity. It's important to be selective. Choose no more than 3 placements and expand on them. For example, talk about how the various members of the multidisciplinary team were vital for a successful surgery and for the patient to make a comprehensive recovery. Also, mention the importance of skills, such as communication and collaboration, within the team. Then, demonstrate how and when you have used/developed these skills in extracurricular activities. Having a notebook at hand during your placements and writing down what skills you saw the doctors using can be very useful.
It's also a good idea to illustrate that medicine can be a demanding profession. For example, "interacting with terminally-ill patients at the hospital showed me the emotional stability that doctors require when witnessing the deterioration of patients". This shows the admissions tutor that you have a realistic understand of medicine as a profession. However, add emphasis to the fact that that the benefits outweigh the negative aspects

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Vaishali K.

Answered by Vaishali, Medical School Preparation Mentoring tutor with MyTutor

2 views

How does the inflammatory response defend the host against pathogens?

The inflammatory response is a quick and non-specific immune response that takes place after the pathogen breaches the host's physical and chemical barriers (skin, mucus, lysozyme...). Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized as foreign by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells. This causes degranulation of mast cells, which release histamine. Histamine promotes vasodilation and increase in vascular permeability, allowing influx of more immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and complement proteins from the blood to the site of infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes which engulf and destroy pathogens in a vacuole. Macrophages also release TNF-alpha, which acts like histamine to make capillaries more "leaky". These processes explain the four main symptoms of inflammation: heat, redness, swelling and pain.
See more
Ada E.

Answered by Ada, Biology A Level tutor with MyTutor

1 view

For what values of k does the line y=kx-1 have two distinct points of intersection with the circle (x-2)^2+(y-3)^2=2?

sub y=kx-1 into circle equation, get (k^2+1)x^2-(8k+4)x+18=0for 2 distinct solutions need b^2-4ac>0, ie -8k^2+64k-56>0iff k^2-8k+7<0complete the square: intersections of equation in k satisfy(k-4)^2=9 so inequality satisfied when 1<k<7. strict inequality for distinct intersection
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Christopher B.

Answered by Christopher, who has applied to tutor Maths GCSE with MyTutor

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