17772 questions

Effect of temperature on enzyme catalysed reaction

1. Increasing temperature increases KE of molecules1. so more enzyme-substrate (E-S) collisions1. more E-S complexes formed2. Hydrogen/ ionic bonds broken2. Enzyme becomes denatured2. Active site changes shape, no longer complimentary to substrate
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Kelvin C.

Answered by Kelvin, Biology tutor with MyTutor

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How well did Cicero negotiate the dynamics of power during the Fall of the Roman Republic?

This is a typical Classical Civilisation exam/ essay question. It focuses on evaluating a certain subject and invites the student to tie their knowledge of the period back to their own opinion. My answer would focus on how Cicero interacted with the key players of the period, deploying relevant source knowledge when appropriate to bolster my answer. When possible, I also wouldn't be afraid to show off my precise knowledge of certain content - such as direct quotations, historical dates or Latin terms - to make sure I achieve the highest marks for demonstrating an intellectual hold of the period. A model paragraph would be: Though Cicero refused to make compromises to his political position during the constitutional crisis of the late Republic, he did work to preserve one of the most important aspects of a Roman's statesmans life: his integrity. Ancient Rome was a society that was obsessed with the idea of legacy, and by refusing to sell out to the likes of Pompey and Caesar until the last possible moment Cicero cemented himself into the line of Rome's great republicans which was led by the likes of Cincinnatus, Cato the Elder and Cato the Younger. In Cicero's letter to Caesar in 54BC... he resisted handing himself over to his cause despite it being in his and his families immediate interests. By doing so, although this move may have stifled his immediate political career, he preserved his political memory in a way that raised him above the over political actors of the period.
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James M.

Answered by James, Classical Civilisation tutor with MyTutor

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Express sin(5theta) in terms of sin(theta) and powers of sin(theta) only.

Consider the expression (cos(theta) + i*sin(theta))5 . (Where theta a real parameter).
By De Moirve's theorem, we know this expression is equivalent to cos(5theta) + i sin(5theta).We can also apply the binomial expansion to this expression and sort into real and imaginary components.We can then equate these two expressions we have found and compare imaginary components to obtain the required solution.
This is best written out by hand.
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Peter F.

Answered by Peter, Further Mathematics tutor with MyTutor

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Explain and contrast the differences between plant and animal cells.

Taken from AQA specification learning outcome 4.1.1.2Students should be able to explain how the main sub-cellular structures, including the nucleus, cell membranes, mitochondria, chloroplasts in plant cells and plasmids in bacterial cells are related to their functions.I find the best way to tackle this question is to create a table:Animal cells vs Plant cellsNext list all the sub cellular units inside each cellFinally add the function of each cellular sub unit to your tableSometimes quick diagram of a cell can help Most animal cells have the following parts: • a nucleus • cytoplasm • a cell membrane • mitochondria • ribosomes. In addition to the parts found in animal cells, plant cells often have: • chloroplasts • a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap. Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall made of cellulose to strengthen the cell
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Gabby K.

Answered by Gabby, Biology tutor with MyTutor

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What is the induced-fit model of enzyme action

Enzyme has an active site that is not quite complementary to substrateActive site changes shape when substrate binds It becomes complementary to substrate
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Kelvin C.

Answered by Kelvin, Biology tutor with MyTutor

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How useful is Source A as as evidence about the electoral system before 1832?

[Source A]'The fact is that yesterday morning I was elected by one voter to represent this ancient borough in Parliament. There was no other candidate and no opposition. On Friday morning I shall leave this triumphant scene with a determination not to see it again in less than seven years.' From a letter sent by Sir Philip Francis in the early nineteenth century to a friend. Francis was MP for the borough of Appleby.
This source is useful as it shows an MP's insight into the unreformed electoral system. We can infer from the references to 'one voter' and 'no other candidate and no opposition' that Appleby was a pocket borough, one controlled by the local landowner. Pocket boroughs persisted even though 'new towns' like Manchester had no MPs of their own.
Secondly this source is also useful because of its date. It is from the period just before the 1832 Reform Act, showing historians some of the things that were being criticised by reformers. Getting rid of pocket boroughs like this one was one of the aims of the reformers and of the Act. So this source is very useful in telling us what was wrong with the electoral system and why there was a growing demand for reform.
However, there are also limits to the source's usefulness. It does not tell us about other problems like large cities not having their own MPs, or the lack of a secret ballot.
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Sam L.

Answered by Sam, History tutor with MyTutor

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What is Accounting Based on?

Accounting is based on the double entry principle. This principle states that for every credit entry there must be a corresponding debit entry. This means that everything must balance out.Think of an account having two sides, the debit and the credit. Using an Example, if a bank gave me loan of £1,000. I will Debit my Bank account with £1,000 and credit my loan account because it is a liability with £1,000. Therefore it balances out. Always think of it like this:DEBIT -Assets and expensesCREDIT- Liabilities and income
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Bukunmi K.

Answered by Bukunmi, Accounting tutor with MyTutor

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Explain how a mutation can cause an enzyme not to work?

A mutation is a change in the base sequence of DNA. This mutation will therefore change one or more triplets, meaning the amino acid sequence is changed as triplets code for amino acids. A change in the amino acid sequence results in a change in the protein, as the primary structure (base sequence) has changed. This alteration will cause the tertiary structure (3D shape) of the protein to be different, meaning the active site of the enzyme is different. The enzyme will therefore not fit the substrate so will not function properly. This is because enzymes are specific - their active site is complementary to one substrate only, like a jigsaw or a 'lock and key', the fit is specific and unique.
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Mollie W.

Answered by Mollie, Biology tutor with MyTutor

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